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A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. 



Vol. XXVIII.— No. 2. 

[KEW SERIES.] 



] 



NEW YORK, JANUARY 11, 1873. 



[ 



$3 per Annum, 

IN ADVANCE. 



DIEECT ACTING STEAM AND HYDEOSTATIC PEESS. 

A valuable and ingenious application of steam to the hy- 
drostatic press is illustrated in the accompanying engravings. 
The power is transmitted to the oil, water, or other liquid in 
the press from the pistons of two steam cylinders, which act 
upon the platen alternately, one imparting the initial and the 
other the finishing pressure. The latter is operated by live 
steam from the boiler, and the former is actuated by the ex- 
haust. The steam is thus used twice over on the compound 
principle, thus effecting no inconsiderable saving of fuel. 

Our large engraving, 
Fig. 1, represents the 
entire apparatus set up 

and in action. Fig. 2 _. 

shows the steam cylin- 
ders in plan, broken to 
exhibitthe attachment, 
and Fig. 3 a section of 
the cheek valve. A, 
Fig. 1, is the hydrosta- 
tic press, adapted for 
pressing cotton or oth- 
er substances. B B are 
liollow cylinders in- 
closing the solid rains, 
C C, which, communi- 
cating with the cross- 
head, D, raise the links, 
E E, and consequently 
the platen, F; G G 
are branched pipes 
through which the li- 
quid enters the cylin- 
ders, B B. H and I, 
Figs. 1 and 2, are the 
steam cylinders, equal 
in size. J and K are 
chambers in which 
work the solid plung- 
ers which, at the same 
time, are the piston 
rods of the cylinders, 
H and I. , The plunger 
in J, it will be noticed, 
is much smaller in di- 
ameter than that in the 
chamber, K. 

Previous to the press- 
ing • operation, live 

steam is admitted (in the direction of the arrow, on the right 
of Fig. 2) which, the valve, L, being open, enters the cylin- 
der, H, and forces the piston ahead against the pressure of 
the liquid which is contained in the press cylinders, B B, the 



proceeding is to thoroughly warm the cylinder, H, so that it 
may less condense the live steam that is subsequently admit- 
ted into it. 

In commencing the pressing, the valve, 0, is first opened. 
The steam, which we have above alluded to as having en- 
tered in front of the piston in the cylinder, H, now returns 
through the pipe, N, and becomes the motive steam in the 
cylinder, I, continuing to flow from one cylinder to the other, 
until the pressure on the two pistons is equalized. The valve, 
0, then closes by its own weight, and any steam which may 



operation in Charleston, S. C. One having two rams, each 
16 inches in diameter and 44 inches travel, steam cylinders of 
48 inches, and stroke 7 feet, with 80 pounds of steam, gives 
a pressure of 1,200,000 pounds, on the material in the press, 
or 14,117 pounds for every pound of steam. The other, with 
22 inch rams, 56 inch cylinders, and 8 foot stroke, with 80 
pounds of steafo, affords 2,138,640 pounds pressure, or 26, 
733 pounds per pound of steam. The operation of these 
machines is stated to be in every way satisfactory. 

Patented February 28, 1871. Reissued through the Scien- 
tific American Patent 
Agency, April 2, 1872. 
For further informa- 
tion, address the pat- 
entees, Messrs. John F. 
Taylor & Co., Phoenix 
Iron Works, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 





chamber, J, and one of the connecting pipes, P. Thevalve,L, 
Is then closed, steam pressure is thus cut off, and the piston, 
acted upon by the liquid pressure, returns to the rear of the 
cylinder, forcing out the steam contained therein. Mean- 
while the valve, M, is opened, and the steam, having no oth- 
er exit, passes through the same and into the pipe connecting 
the valve chambers of the two cylinders. As the inlet valve, 
O, of the second cylinder is closed, the steam enters the 
pipe, N, and is thereby reconducted into the cylinder, H, the 
said pipe passing along the outside of the cylinder to its front 
end, when it communicates therewith, and the steam fills 
the whole s»ace in front of the piston. The object of the 



TAYLOR'S DIRECT ACTING STEAM AND HYDROSTATIC PRESS. 

remain in front of the piston, in cylinder H, may be allowed 
to escape through a pipe (not shown) in connection with the 
exhaust, S. The steam, entering through O, pushes forward 
the piston in cylinder, I, and the ram in chamber, K, thus 
displacing the fluid, forcing it underneath the rams, C C, and 
thereby lifting the platen, F. As soon as the motion of the 
piston stops, either by its reaching the end of its cylinder, or 
being arrested by the opposition of the liquid, a check valve, 
Q, at the front end of chamber, K, which has been opened by 
the passage of the fluid as it is forced through, closes auto- 
matically by its own weight, thus preventing a return of the 
current. The arrangement of this valve with the forward 
portion of its containing chamber is clearly shown in sec- 
tion in Fig. 3. 

The valve, L, is next opened, and live steam admitted to 
the piston, in cylinder H, which, by means of the ram in J, 
drives a second current through its connecting pipe of the 
pair, P, under the rams, C C, and so completes the pressure 
of the material between the platens. The bale being proper- 
ly tied, the valve, L, is closed, and the valve, M, opened. 
The weight of the platen acting on the liquid forces the pis- 
ton in cylinder, H, back, the steam in the rear of the latter 
once more passes by the tube, N, to the front, and the opera- 
tion, as already explained, is repeated. The various valves 
alluded to are governed by convenient and suitable mechan- 
ism, which need not here be described, and are controlled by 
the hand levers, as shown in the large illustration. The ini- 
tial pressure upon the platen not requiring so great an appli- 
cation of power as the finishing pressure, it is evident that, by 
the increased diameter of the ram, K, and the reduced action 
of the exhaust steam, a quicker though less effective force is 
obtained. But the ram, J, being of smaller sectional area, 
and receiving also the full force of the live steam, is, as may 
be mathematically shown, necessarily capable of exerting an 
enormous pressure. Moreover, this ram is constructed less 
in diameter than the press rams, C C, in order that the press- 
ure upon the latter may be in proportion as their diameters 
are the greater. It is evident, therefore, that this portion of 
the invention is excellently devised for imparting the con- 
cluding powerful impulse to the platen. 
i The inventof '.nforaia us that two of these presses are in 



Disinfection of All 
of Sick Booms, 
The three best agents 
for accomplishing the 
disinfection of air after 
smallpox or other con- 
tagious diseases, are 
sulphurous acid, io- 
dine, and carbolic acid. 
The best method of em- 
ploying sulphurous 
acid is to scatter a lit- 
tle flowers of sulphur 
upon a heated shovel 
and carry it about in 
the room or rooms 
which are to be disin 
fccted. 

Iodine may be used 
by simply placing a lit- 
tle in an open glass or 
earthen vessel, and it 
vaporizes readily at the 
ordinary temperature 
of a house. Carbolic 
acid may be employed 
by sprinkling a weak 
solution of it on the 
floor of the room, or 
cloths wetted in such 
solution may be hung about the roo ms. A simple apparatus 
for using this acid is to have a bro ad band of cotton passing 
over two wooden rollers over a dish filled with a solution of 
the acid. As the upper half of the band dries, give the 



Fiti. 3 




rollers a turn, and the lower half of the 'jand, wet witu the 
solution, takes its place uppermost. 

♦-.♦. m 

A Philadelphia manufacturer is preparing a plan for a 
column 1,000 feet high, to be constructed entirely of iron, in 
open work, from the summit of which the grounds of the 
Centennial Exposition are to be illuminated by means of a 
Drummond light. If adopted, it will be the loftiest monu- 
ment in the world. 

»-*+-* 

A CORRESPONDENT tells us that corn is now selling at 
Topeka, Kansas, for from 14 to 18 cents a bushel. The 
price is usually 40 to 50 cents per bushel. 



© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



i6 



J> txmtxik %mmtm. 



[January ii, 1873. 




MUNN & CO., Editors and Proprietors. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT 
NO. 37 PARK ROW. NEW YORK. 



0. D. MUNN. 



A. E. BEACH. 



TERMS. 

One copy, one year ....... $3 O© 

One copy, six months l 50 

„., R , T .. 1 T ™ copies, one year, each $2 50 85 OO 
*""° B " " KS i Over ten copies, same rate, each » SO 

TO BE HAD AT ALL THE NEWS DEPOTS. 



VOL. XXVIII., No. 2. [New Series.] Twenty-eighth Tear. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 11, 1873. 



Contents : 

(Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk. 



Answers to correspondents 27 

* Anti-sea sick ship, the IS 

Art treasures from Cyprus 17 

Aurora, new theory of the 18 

■Blastfurnace, improved 22 

Boomerang, an irou IS 

Business and personal 27 

Carbon, the manufacture of 21 

Chemistry in 1872, the progress of. 21 

Corn as fuel its 

Disinfection of sick rooms 15 

*Elevntcd railway at Lyons 22 

Envelope making 23 

Expansion engines, continuous... 33 

Explosions prod uced l>y high notes 20 

Fire engine, a gigantic 24 

Friction of journals 17 

•Hydrostatic press, steam and 15 

Iron process, the Henderson 16 

Manganese, metallic 21 

Meteor, a Yankee bov's 21 

Molecules? arenot ihe elements.. 20 

New books and publications 25, 

New York Industrial exhibition, ' 

the 16 

Notes and queries 27 



Patent business In Congress 

Patent decisions, recent 

Patented in England by Ameri- 
cans, inventions 

Patents in Germany 

Patents, official list of 

Patents, recent American and for- 
eign 

Petroleum wells in Ecuador 

Power in the steam engine, losses 
of 

Press, the, Marinonl 

Printing presses 

Railroads, well equipped 

Scientific an* practical Informa- 
tion 

Solar rays, certain properties of 
the 

Steam vs. fire 

Tea, twenty dollar 

Telegraphy, government 

"To whom it may concern" 

*Tyniail on light, Professor 

"water wheel, the great Laxey 

j Wheelbarrow, a conflict with a 

Wheeler's expedition, Lieutenant 



LOSSES OF POWER IN THE STEAM ENGINE. WHERE 
IT MAY BE IMPROVED AND TO WHAT EXTENT. 

The mechanical equivalent of heat, as we have had fre- 
quent occasion to state, in reckoned at 772 foot pounds per 
thermal unit — that unit being the quantity of heat neces- 
sary to raise one pound o E water one degree in temperature 
The fact is so very important that we shall be excused, 
however frequently we may present it. 

A pound of pure carbon yields, in burning, 14,500 units 
of heat, equivalent to 14,500X772 = 11, 194,000 footpounds 
of energy. A pound of good coal containing 91 per cent 
carbon, as shown in the report of the committee of the Amer- 
ican Institute testing steam boilers in 1872, produces aboul 
13,200 units of heat, and its mechanical equivalent is 
13,200X772 — 10,190,400 foot-pounds of work. 

The very best classes of modern steam engines very seldom 
consume less than two pounds of coal per horse power per 
hour, and it is a good engine that works regularly on three 
pounds. A horse power raises 1,980,000 pounds one foot 
high per hour. Consequently, a pound of coal, in our very 
best engines, developes bat J-^B- 0J -* l =990,000foot pounds 
instead of the 10,190,400 which it would give us were there 
no loss of power. 

The first-class steam engine, therefore, yields less than 10 
per cent of the work stored up in good fuel, and the aver- 
age engine probably utilizes less than 4 per cent. 

A part of this loss is unavoidable, being due to natural 
conditions beyond the control of human power, while an- 
other portion is, to a considerable extent, controllable by the 
engineer, or by the engine driver. 

Scientific research has shown that the proportion of heat, 
stored up in any fluid, which may be utilized by perfect 
mechanism, must be represented by a fraction, the nume- 
rator of which is the range of temperature of the fluid while 
doing useful work, and the denominator of which is the 
temperature of the fluid when entering the machine, meas- 
ured from the " absolute zero " — the point at which heat mo- 
tion is supposed to cease entirely — 461° Fahr. below the 
zero of the common scale. 

Thus, steam, at a temperature of 320° Fahr. , being taken 
into a perfect steam engine, and doing work there until it is 
thrown into the condenser at 100° Fahr., would yield 
320-100 . aB , 
320+4f7 — ' ° r ratner more tnan one fourth of the 

10,190,400 footpounds of work which it should have re- 
ceived from each pound of fuel. 

The ratio, AWyW =0 - 34= i> of the work done h 7 our 
best class of engines, to this possible performance of 
a perfect engine using 75 pounds of steam, shows us how 
much we have to hope for in improving the steam engine. 

The proportion of work that a non-condensing, but other- 
wise perfect, engine, using steam of 75 pounds pressure, 

could utilize, would be --■— — — -=0'14 = -; and, while the 

perfect condensing engine would consume two thirds of a 
pound of good coal per hour, the perfect non -condensing en- 
gine would use 1^ pounds per hour for each horse power de- 
veloped, the steam being taken into the engine and ex- 
hausted at the temperature assumed above. Also, were it 
possible to work steam down to the absolute zero of temper- 
ature, the perfect engine would require but 019 pounds of 
similar fuel. 

We may therefore state, with a close approximation to ex- 
actness, that, of all the heat ;>erived from the fuel, about 
seven tenths is lost through the existence of natural condi- 
tions over which man can probably never expect to obtain 



control, two tenths are lost through imperfections in our ap- 
paratus, and only one tenth is utilized in even good en 
gines. 

We have intended to include boiler and engine when writ- 
ing of the steam engine above. In this combination, a waste 
of probably one third at least of the heat derived from the 
fuel takes place in the boiler and steam pipes, on the aver- 
age, in the best of practice, and we are therefore only able 
to anticipate a possible saving of , 2X0 , 75=0'15, about 
one sixth of the fuel, now expended in our best class of en- 
gines, by improvements in the machine itself. This is a 
most important fact to ingenious and enthusiastic but unin- 
formed inventors. 

The best steam engine, apart from its boiler, therefore, 
has 0'85, about five sixths, of the efficiency of a perfect en- 
gine, and the remaining sixth is lost through waste of heat 
by radiation and conduction externally, by condensation 
within the cylinder, and by friction and other useless work 
done within itself. It is to improvement in these points that 
inventors must turn their attention if they would improve 
upon the best modern practice by changes in the construc- 
tion of the steam engine. 

To attain further economy, after having perfected the ma- 
chine in these particulars, they must contrive to use a fluid 
which they may work through a wider range of tempera- 
ture, as has been attempted in air engines by raising the 
upper limit of temperature, and in binary vapor engines 
by reaching toward a lower limit, or by working a fluid from 
a higher temperature than is now done down to the lowest 
possible temperature. The upper limit is fixed by the heat- 
resisting power of our materials of construction, and the 
lower by the mean temperature of objects on the surface of 
earth, being much lower at some seasons than at others. 

In the boiler, the endeavor must be to take up all the heat 
of combustion, sending the gases into the chimney at as 
low a temperature as possible, and securing, in the furna.ee, 
perfect combustion without excess of air supply. 

The best engines still lack 15 per cent of perfection, and 
the best boilers, as an average, over 30 per cent. 

This is not as much as some of our readers had supposed. 
We know of instances in which they are wasting time, 
money and energy, in the confident anticipation of making 
one pound of coal do the work that now requires ten, and 
we have endeavored here to show them what is the amount 
of actual waste and where it occurs, in order that they 
may detect the fallacy which has misled them, as well as in 
order to instruct and interest the general reader. 
•.*.• 



GOVERNMENT TELEGRAPHY. 

We have observed the progress of the efforts that are now 
being made in Congress to place the institution of telegraphy, 
like that of the mails, in the hands of the general govern- 
ment. In theory, the idea is pleasing and on the whole pop- 
ular. . Sooner or later, doubtless it will be done. But if any 
one expects that messages will be transmitted any cheaper, 
quicker, or better than at present, we think they will be dis- 
appointed. Then, in the matter of damages suffered, indi- 
viduals will have no remedy against the government, where- 
as, with the telegraph in private hands, the courts hold the 
companies to the strictest accountability for their blunders 
or neglect. The interests of the companies are thus made 
to depend in a very great degree on the promptness and 
accuracy with which they transact their business. But in 
government hands, no such incentives will exist. The courts 
could not then punish the stockholders, and the telegraph, 
like all other government machines, would be conducted in a 
slow and comparatively careless manner. 

Then as to cost, under the existing regime those who use 
the telegraph pay the expenses. But when we place the 
tines in the hands of the government, the people at large will 
be taxed to pay for the purchase and make good the inevit- 
able annual deficiency. In England and other parts of Eu- 
rope, the telegraph is operated by the governments, and the 
statistics show that messages are not so promptly delivered, 
and cost quite as much or more than in this country under 
the present arrangements, and that the receipts fail to meet 
the expenses. Our Postmaster General, Mr. Creswell, has 
become quite a strenuous advocate for the postal telegraph, 
and in an official report made upon the subject he presents a 
variety of information ; but unfortunately it is full of inae- 
uracies which impair its value, and will be apt to perplex 
those who attempt to deduce practical instruction therefrom. 
For example, he estimates that for about twelve millions of 
dollars the government could build telegraph lines equal in 
extent to all now in use in this country, or one hundred and 
seventy-five thousand miles in total length. Singularly 
enough, this estimate is adopted on the evidence of Mr. 
Chester, who put up the fire telegraph in this city, six hun- 
dred and twenty-six miles in length, and charged the author- 
ities eight hundred and fifty thousand dollars therefor. At 
the rate of Mr. Chester's price for New York city, the cost to 
the government for the postal telegraph would be over two 
hundred millions of dollars. 

We earnestly hope that Congress will move deliberately 
in this matter. Our present telegraph system works exceed- 
ingly well ; indeed, no other country is better supplied. Let 
well enough alone is a safe rule. But if we must have a 
change, Congress ought first to procure, for the information 
of its fwn members and the people, the most full and accu- 
rate estimates of the cost, and the advantages, if any, which 
would be likely to ensue. We think that a special Congres- 
sional committee might be appointed, charged with the duty 
of collecting and arranging the real facts in the matter. 
Such an investigation, honestly conducted, would he approved 
by the public. 



THE NEW YORK INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION. 

Quite a number of wealthy citizens of New Yorkcity have, 
for some time past, been considering a plan of establishing a 
permanent industrial exhibition building in some convenient 
locality in the metropolis. At a recent meeting a committee 
was appointed to examine into the subject, from the lately 
published report of which we glean the following particulars 
regarding the scheme : The Industrial Exhibition Company 
is a regularly organized corporation under the State laws. 
It has contracted to purchase a piece of land lying between 
98th and 102d streets, and Third and Fourth avenues, m this 
city, consisting of eight blocks of ground, for the sum of 
$1,700,000. $200,000 of this has been paid. The estimated 
cost of a suitable building and ground improvements is 
seven million dollars. A proposition has been irinde by a 
New England firm to construct a dome over the court, which 
dome shall be the largest and most magnificent in the world. 
The estimated cost of this structure is $3,000,000, but all 
the builders ask in payment is a perpetual lease of it above 
the spring of the arch. Finally the hope is expressed that 
Congress will favor the idea of the World's Fair being opened 
in this building in 1876. It is not proposed to interfere with 
Philadelphia's "Centennial," but, as the committee state, 
" we, New Yorkers, cannot but feel that we may celebrate in 
our own way so important an occasion." 

The report was adopted, and committees were appointed, 
among which we may notice the names of Messrs. Samuel 
Sloan, Richard Schell, Paul Spofford, Win. B. Astor, Wm. M. 
Evarts, R. H. Pruyn, Francis Skiddy, E. L. Tiffany, and many 
others. Subscription papers have been prepared and freely 
circulated, so that the enterprise thus fairly launched bids 
fair to be rapidly pushed forward to a successful completion 
«-<&»-« 



CORN AS FUEL. 

A curious state of affairs exists in the West. Farmers are 
not only burning corn for fuel at the present time, but lay- 
ing in supplies to serve for that purpose during the coming 
winter. It is asserted that corn gives a better heat for cook- 
ing purposes than any wood excepting hickory, while, for 
economy of consumption, it is cheaper. Hard wood on the 
spot costs $7.50 per cord, corn, $5.60. As compared with 
coal, it is estimated that three tuns of corn will give heat 
equal to one tun of coal, while in economy of use, it is equal 
to one and a half tuns of the latter. 

That this is an unpleasant commentary upon our facilities 
for transportation cannot be denied. The cost of food here 
in the East is notoriously large, and it is equally true that 
living expenses have in but a small degree decreased since 
the darkest period of the war. Yet, such are the rates of 
freight or the fewness of carrying lines that it seems a bet- 
ter paying operation to burn food than to send it to Eastern 
markets for sale. 

A cotemporary aptly suggests that evidence is here afforded 
of the gradual diminution of our forests, a serious fact to 
which we have frequently adverted. There are strong ef- 
forts being made by the National Bureau of Agriculture, as 
well as by State societies, to protect the growing timber, and 
suggestions from these sources should be heeded and acted 
upon. If, as the burning of grain implies, the woodland in 
the neighborhood of the corn-producing districts in the West 
has become so sadly depleted, it is time that protective means 
were adopted ani effective measures inaugurated which will 
at least supply the deficit to future inhabitants of the coun- 
try. Corn may make excellent fuel for future generations, 
but it will scarcely answer as a material from which houses 
or furniture can be constructed. 

Another idea worthy of consideration is that of raising a 
cheap variety of maize which will yield a maximum of woody 
or combustible fiber with a very light consequent exhaustion 
of the soil. There are varieties which will thrive in northerly 
climates, and can be cultivated at the rate of seventy-five 
bushels per acre. It is swift of growth, as it contains more 
oily than starchy qualities, and is well adapted for fuel. 



THE HENDERSON IRON PROCESS. 

We have heretofore chronicled, the progress of this ne^ 
improvement in the manufacture of iron, and are happy to 
be able to say that the recent tests to which it has been sub- 
jected,which have been many and thorough, have fully con- 
firmed the great value and importance of the invention. It 
promises to revolutionize the art of manufacturing iron; 
grea,tly economizing in the labor and vastly improving the 
quality of the metal produced. The invention is by James 
Henderson, of New York, who for the past, year has been 
engaged in England, in developing the merits of the discov- 
ery where it has attracted the greatest attention. 

The Henderson process consists in the application of 
fluorine, in the form of fluor spar, and of oxygen in 
-the form of oxide of iron to the molten cast iron. The 
ingredients mentioned are thrown into the puddling fur 
nace and the cast iron ifl then poured in upon the mixture, 
which remains at. the bottom. The iron is then allowed 
to boil for about half an hour, .then rabbled for ten 
minutes, when the metal is balled up. The time occu- 
pied is an hour for each charge. The fluorine and oxygen 
remove the phosphorus and other impurities within a few 
minutes. The discovery is applicable to the production of 
wrought iron and steel of the best qualities. From cinder 
pig and the common brands of cast iron, a wrought iron 
having very great toughness is produced. Mr. Kirkaldy 
certifies that steel made from the Henderson wrought iron 
derived from common Scotch pig, gave a tensile strength 
equal to steel made from the best Swedish iron, and, in the 
form of tools, stood the- wear equally well The analyses of 
Dr. Noad show that the Henderson process removes every 
impurity from the iron. The Mechanics' Magazine states that, 



© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January ii, 1873.] 



JfrMifb SmmOT. 



17 



by the Henderson process, iron in England can be made equa 1 
in purity to the best Swedish, and substituted for the Swed- 
ish in making the highest classes of steel. 



FRICTION OF JOURNALS. 

A correspondent writing from Columbus, Ohio, asks 
whether the friction of a large journal is greater than that of 
a small one, the length and character of bearing being the 
same in both cases, and the number of revolutions the same, 
the only difference being in the diameter of the journal. 

The friction on any surface, whether plane or cylindrical, 
is proportional to the weight resting upon it and is not at all 
affected by the area of the rubbing surface, provided the 
pressure is not so great, on the one hand, as to change the 
character of those surfaces, nor so -light, on the other hand, 
as to make the resistance principally that of viscosity of the 
lubricant rather than that of true friction. In the former 
case, the friction may increase immensely in consequence of 
the cutting of the surfaces; and, in the latter, the increase of 
frictional resistance will be approximately proportional to 
the increase of area. 

The work done in any given time, that is, the power 
wasted in turning any journal on its bearings, is, where the 
frictional resistance is the same, proportional to the speed of 
the rubbing surfaces, since it is measured by the product of 
the resistance into the distance through which that resistance 
is overcome. Therefore, it follows that a very large jour- 
nal absorbs a larger proportion of the driving power of a 
machine than does one of small diameter, and in designing 
machinery we should make journals of as small diameter as 
pos.-ible without danger of breaking the shaft, or of causing 
abrasion of the rubbing surfaces. 

Again, the tendency of a journal to heat is the greater the 
greater the pressure per square inch of longitudinal section 
of the journal, and it is increased by increasing the speed of 
the rubbing surfaces. Therefore, to make journals safe 
against heating, make them of as small diameter as safety 
permits ; unci having thus reduced their absorption of power 
to the lowest limit, secure bearing surface by giving them 
ample length. If they are, however, made so long that the 
ihaft can spring in the journal, heating may occur from that 
cause; in line shafting, this will, of course, not happen. 
The best practice gives line shafting for mills a length of 
journal equal to four times the diameter of the shaft. 

There are rules, known to engineers, for properly design- 
ing journals, which are based on the principles above stated. 
The earliest of which we have knowledge is that of Pro- 
fessor R. II. Thurston, which was based upon observation of 
the action of crank shafts of naval steamers in 1802. A 
somewhat similar rule, based on locomotive practice, was 
published by Professor W. J. M. Rankine in 1865. The first 
is expressed as follows : 



1 = "oooood ; an(1 Id 



60000 m , , . 44100 

and, when reduced to the same form as that of Professor 

44»00 a '" 
Here 1, 



Thurston, becomes 1 

.length of journal in inches; P== total pressure on 
journal ; p = pressure per square inch of longitudinal section ; 
V= velocity of rubbing, in feet per minute; d = diameter of 
journal in inches. 

In no case in general practice should the pressure, on even 
the slowest moving journals, be allowed to exceed 1,000 
pounds per square inch of longitudinal section with steel 
journals or about 600 on iron, running in well worn boxes in 
each case. 

Special care should always be taken to provide for effective 
lubrication. 

«-••>-• , 

PATENT BUSINESS IN CONGRESS. 

The Congressional bureau for patent business is now in 
full blast, and the reports of a single day's proceedings, con- 
nected with such matters, occupies an entire page of one of 
our largest newspapers. It appears from these proceedings 
that every man who has been dilatory in applying to the 
Commissioner for an extension of his patent, as the law re- 
quires, may readily get a special law passed for his relief by 
applying to the Committee on Patents of the House of Rep- 
resentatives. Mr. Meyers, from that Committee, stated the 
other day to the House that in all such cases the Committee 
unanimously recommended that the petitioner should be 
relieved, and that Congress had never refused relief. Such 
being the feeling of Congress, it seems to us that members 
might save themselves the loss of much valuable time by 
passing a general law authorizing the Commissioner to hear 
dilatory petitions. 

In the following cases, wherein the parties failed to put in 
their petitions for extensions within the time specified by 
law, Congress has, by special enactment in each case, author- 
ized the Commissioner to hear and decide as to the propri- 
ety of extensions, namely : 

Patent of Joseph Fox, for an Improvement in machinery 
for making Crackers. Patented February 1, 1859. 

Patented by Thomas Warker, for an Improvement in 
apparatus for Generating Acid *as. Patented April 27, 1858. 

Patent of James C. Cooke, for an Improvement in Manu- 
facturing Webbing. Patented January 4, 1858. 

Patent of Nicholas G. Norcross, for an Improvement in 
Planing Machines. Patented June 22, 1852. In this case it 
was shown that the patentee was deceased and that his son, 
Frederick W. Norcross, who now applies for the extension, 
was, at the time of the expiration, in the service of his coun- 
try as a lieutenant and had distinguished himself for gallan- 
iry and bravery. In consequence of his occupation in the 
service he was unable to apply for the extension within the 
time required by the law, and now comes before Congress, 



asking that the Commissioner of Patents may be authorized 
to hear and act upon his petition, the same as though there 
had been no legal lapse. 

The bills for the extension of the following important pat- 
ent monopolies were then discussed : 

woodjsttry's horse power patent. 

Application of Daniel Woodbury for a revival of his 
Horse Power Patent. Originally granted in 1846. Expired 
in I860, at which time the applicant made strenuous efforts 
to get the patent extended by the Commissioner of Patents, 
who, for good and sufficient reasons, refused an extension. 
Three years ago Woodbury applied to Congress for an exten- 
sion, but the bill failed to pass. He now appears again, his 
patent having rested among the dead for twelve years. The 
Committee made a long report on the subject adverse to the 
revival of the monopoly, and so the patent sleeps. 

marcher's composition patent. 
Rebecca A. Marcher. Being an application for a second | 
extension of the patent of her late husband, Robert Marcher, 
originally granted October, 1851, for a machine, for applying 
semi-liquid composition to picture frames, producing orna- 
mental work thereon, etc. Extended seven years by the Com- 
missioner of Patents, which extension expires October 21, 
1872. This is an important patent and is in very extensive 
use. The Committee, in consideration of the fact that the 
petitioner was a widow in indigent circumstances, with three 
minor children to provide for, recommended a further exten- 
sion for seven years from October 21, 1872, and the bill was 
passed. 

the hayden brass kettle patent. 

The great Hayden Brass Kettle case was then considered. 
This was the patent granted to Hiram W. Hayden, December 
16, 1851, for machinery for making kettles and analogous 
articles. Extended for seven years by the Commissioner of 
Patents, which extension expired December 16, 1872. The 
patentee asks Congress to give him another extension of 
seven years. 

It was shown that this patent formed one of the largest 
patent monopolies ever granted. For the last twenty years 
it has been held by the Waterbury Brass Company, who are 
understood to have grown immensely wealthy from the 
profits on the patent. The patent covers, broadly, the right 
to make kettles and other articles by what is known as tin 
spinning process. It was shown that the Waterbury Com 
pany had driven out of market all other kinds of kettles and 
possessed the exclusive monopoly of the business. 

It was shown in behalf of the inventor that, even if his 
assignees had grown wealthy, that he himself had not received 
any adequate remuneration; but be probably would be abb 1 
to compensate himself if the further extension now asked 
were granted. 

Mr. Kellogg, speaking in behalf of the applicant, made the 
following interesting remarks : 

"This is 'an invention which completely revolutionized the 
manufacture of brass kettles ; it created a new art. Instead 
of being an invention to be sneered at as worth but little, ii 
is one of the most wonderful inventions ever made in the 
process of working metals. It consists in what is called 
spinning metal. A flat disk of brass is taken, and by means 
of machinery the metal is spun, so that the particles are 
changed, while still maintaining their adherence and force. 
Before this invention, kettles were pounded or battered or 
stamped by -hand — a process so laborious that no man even 
in those days could work at this occupation more than eight 
hours a day ; and even then the kettles were so made that 
they wffluld be thinnest at the bottom and the edges, where 
the fire came ; so that two kettles made in this way would 
not last any longer than one made by thi3 new process by 
spinning. By this process of spinning metal this inventor, 
Mr. Hayden, produced kettles of double thickness at the 
places where the fire comes ; and according to all the evidence 
before the committee, one of these kettles will outlast two 
of the old kind. In proof of this I may mention that, when 
this invention had come into use, kettles manufactured by 
the old process were driven entirely out of the market. The 
evidence also shows that at least a million and a half of dol- 
lars have been saved by this invention on the single article 
if kettles. 

"This article of manufacture is comparatively less used in 
this couiktj than formerly. This inventor not only intro- 
duced a new art, but he opened up a new branch of com- 
merce with some of the European nations and Africa. A 
great part of the kettles manufactured under his invention 
have been exported. Thus this invention is helping every 
day to keep the balance of trade in our favor. 

" I am aware that he has received a little more than $1,500 
a year from the invention ; but it is an invention which took 
him years to perfect. He was a poor mechanic at the outset, 
and this paltry sum is a small compensation for so valuable 
an invention." 

The House divided, 60 ayes, 64 noes, so the bill was defeat 
ed, and the Brass Kettle Monopoly comes to an end. 



ART TREASURES FROM CYPRUS— ENGLISH CRITICISM 
ON THEIR DESTINATION. 

There are two journals published in London which may 
be considered the organs of that exclusive class of British 
society who, whether from choice or from indolence to ob- 
tain the commonest information, possess and cultivate the 
most profound ignorance, not to say stupidity, regarding 
everything in anywise pertaining to the United States. We 
allude to the Saturday Review, which, in classical English 
and faultless rhetoric, gravely puts forward the most extrav- 
agant absurdities, and the Pall Midi Gazette, which, if we 



remember rightly, especially distinguished itself during »ur 
late war by systematically publishing false reports of every 
Federal victory, and, with other rebel-sympathizing papers, 
revelled in predictions of grass growing in the thoroughfares 
of New York, and the untamed buffalo roaming over the 
ruins of the national Capitol. Both of these journals are the 
legitimate objects of the editorial scissoring of the balance 
of the London press, and, following the general example, the 
Building News, with a strange lack of discrimination, has 
culled from the valuable pages of the Pall Mall Gazette an 
article entitled " Art Treasures from Cyprus," which ia a 
scholarly description of the collection of Greek and Phoeni- 
cian antiquities, made by our late consul, General Di Cesnola, 
among the ancient ruins of that island. These relics were 
exposed for sale for some time in Europe, but met with no 
purchaser, owing to the high price set upon them. Recently, 
however, and in a late number of our journal, we adverted 
to the fact that they were bought by the management of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, and in proper time will be per- 
manently located in that institution in New York city. 

Now, if some obscure German principality had taxed its 
few inhabitants to the full extent of their incomes to pur- 
chase these works of art, and had entombed them in the 
dingy recesses of some out-of-the-way university where no 
one could possibly be benefited by them, save a few fossil 
professors, all might have been well. But unfortunately 
they are to go to America — and worst of all to New York — 
and there " waste their sweetness on the desert air " of bar- 
baric and benighted Yankees. No wonder, then, that the 
learned pundit of the Pall Mall Gazette, whose whole aesthe- 
tic nature has been thus ruthlessly harrowed up, bewails 
their loss in the following manner: "And where are these 
materials going to for their final lodgment ? Where, indeed ? 
To New York, U. S. America. That seems a strange desti- 
nation for a collection of antiquities which is not one repre- 
sentative of beautiful and popular forms of Greek or Greco- 
Roman work . . . and invaluable as the supplement of ex- 
isting museums in centers of organized scholarship and re- 
search. The shipment of these things to New York means 
simply, for the present at any rate, mystification to the New 
York gaper) and sea sickness for the European archaeologist. 
For the most intelligent New Yorker can get but moderate 
advantage out of the antiquities of this collection taken 
apart from their historical place in relation to antiquities of 
other schools and another aspect ; and; specimens of these last 
he does not possess and has little chance of coming by." 

The first response to the foregoing remarks is the question 
which naturally occurs: " Why were not these inestimable 
treasures bought during the long period they were offered 
abroad ?" But this aside, we perhaps may venture humbly to 
suggest to the above erudite authority thai the American 
public, and especially the citizens of New Yoik, are educated 
to a far higher standard of art criticism, and can appreciate 
the value of such relics in a degree somewhat superior to 
the cockney visitors, who would flatten their noses in some- 
thing more than mere " mystification " against tli£ glass cases 
of the South Kensington Museum, in London, did the col- 
lection find its way to that celebrated edifice. And further, 
we may add for the information of our cotemporary, that 
our metropolis contains gentlemen who are as familiar as the 
writer of the above with the galleries and museums of Eu- 
rope, and consequently as thoroughly able to reap the ad- 
vantages of comparison and kindred knowledge as any for- 
eign ' 'sea sick" archaeologist that may deign to visit our shores. 
It is about time that America and the Americans were bet- 
ter understood by the English public, who still persistently 
cling to the extravagant representations of the country sup- 
plied by Dickens and Mrs. Trollope. The public of New 
York, Boston, and, indeed, every other of our cities, appre- 
ciate scientific and artistic subjects with a zest unknown to 
the people of Europe. The English journals well know that 
Professor Tyndall, for example, justly celebrated as he is, 
could not command $1,000 a night for a course of lectures in 
any city in the United Kingdom, and that no foreign opera- 
tic manager would listen to such prices, demanded and re- 
ceived among us by such musicians as Rubinstein, Lucca, 
or Nilsson. Our native artists, painters, and sculptors find 
in their own country patrons, in private citizens, who supple- 
ment their efforts with a munificence unheard of abroad; 
while, on the other hand, it is but recently that the European 
papers were regretting the fact that many of the finest gems 
of ancient art were crossing the Atlantic simply through the 
lavish expenditure of American connoisseurs. The fact of 
our being destitute of the great museums and galleries, such 
as are found in the cities of foreign countries, requires no 
other explanation than the youth of the nation. The need 
for such valuable aids, in the education of popular taste, is 
fully appreciated, and throughout the different States wealthy 
and public spirited citizens are laboring to found repositories 
of the choicest specimens ufforded by science and art. 

Such slurs upon the American public and upon our distin- 
guished scholars, as are cast by the Pall Mall Gazette, will 
fail to influence the liberal-minded or progressive in any part 
of the world, while they serve to fully exhibit the narrow- 
ness, intolerance, and ignorance of the mind by which they 
were conceived. 



The description of a device for opening window blinds 
from within the casement, recently sent to us by a correspon- 
dent, occupies sixteen foolscap pages and the drawings six- 
teen additional pages, or thirty -two pages in all. It is well 
written and clearly described, every part of the device being 
illustrated in every possible position, the whole forming a 
curious example of exactness and prolixity. Most persons 
could have sketched and described the thing with sufficient 
clearness in the space of a single page. 



©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



i8 



Mtntxiu %mmau. 



[January ii, 1873. 



THE ANTI-SEA-SICK SHIP. 

We last week gave a description of the proposed anti-sea- 
sick steamer of Mr. Henry Bessemer, and the experimental 
apparatus lately erected by him on the grounds of his resi- 
dence at Denmark Hill, England. We give herewith an il- 
lustration of this apparatus from Engineering. Our cotem- 
porary states that the prospectus for a proposed company, 
entitled 'The Bessemer Saloon Steamboat Company," has 
appeared, capital $1,000,000. The proposition is to build a 
large vessel to run across the English Channel, between Eng- 
land and France. Mr. Bessemer is to have for his patent 
20 per cent upon the charges made to passengers who use 
the swinging saloon, and 10 percent upon all sales of rights 
to other constructors. The arrangement consists of a 



ty of reflected light increases with the angle of incidence, 
adds the author, we may see how the reflected sunlight illu- 
minates in the highest degree the night skies of the region 
nearest the pole ; further, the great similarity of the incipi- 
ent light of the aurora to moonlight is thus explained, the 
latter being also sunlight reflected. 

The rays falling on the ice at an angle of 40° are, however, 
dispersed as well as reflected. It is commonly said that the 
point of origin of the aurora is indicated by the direction of 
the magnetic needle. More correctly .according to Dr. Wolf ert, 
a line drawn from the sun at right angles to the horizon and 
prolonged would be the middle line of the phenomenon. 
On this supposition an advance of the central part of the 
aurora to the north is explained. 



feet. The course taken by the mass of iron was most pe- 
culiar — first upward in a curve, going in a south-westerly di- 
rection until it had passed over the saw mill, then suddenly 
changing when near the ground to directly north, and going 
in a direct line through the walls. The erratic movements of 
the mass of iron can only be accounted for by its peculiar 
shape, being not unlike the boomerang of the Australian 
aborigines. 



Petroleum Wells in Ecuador, 

The English Oil Trade Review publishes the report of the 
Government Engineer of the Republic of Ecuador, in which 
we find it stated that petroleum has been found in that coun- 
try in large quantities. On a surface of about four square 




SALOON OF BESSEMER'S ANTI-SEA-SICK SHIP 



twenty foot length of the hull of a vessel of twenty foot beam 
sunk in a brick pit and carried on a longitudinal axis. In 
the ship is a saloon suspended as above described, and con- 
nected with it is a curved spirit level, with a graduated scale 
and pointer, the latter of which the steersman always keeps 
at the zero point. An oscillatory motion is given to the hull 
by a small engine connected to it with suitable gearing. This 
motion amounts to 14° each way, representing a total roll of 
28°, with ten oscillations per minute, but notwithstanding 
this the cabin does not indicate a deviation of more than 
from 1° to IJ° from the horizontal. Mr. Bessemer considers 
his idea but the germ of what may be thought out, and frank- 
ly admits that some other brain than his own may push on 
the work he has initiated. 

The difficulty of pitching is overcome by increasing the 
length of the vessel so as to insure longitudinal stability. 
The principle of the saloon is, in fact, carried out in a ves- 
sel designed by Mr. E. J. Reed, for the channel passage. 
She will be 350 feet long, with 65 feet beam over her paddle 
boxes, and 7 feet 6 inches draft of water. The saloon will 
be placed amidships, in the position generally occupied by 
the engines. The latter will be of 750 horse power, nomi- 
nal, and are expected to drive the vessel twenty knots per 
hour. The ship will be double-ended so as to enable her 
to enter and quit existing harbors, and at each extremity 
will be provided with a very low free board, so that she may 
cut the waves instead of rising to them. 

In the Scientific American for May 21, 1870, our read- 
ers will find an engraving of Lorenzo D. Newell's swinging 
saloon, which antedates Mr. Bessemer's device, and in some 
respects may be considered preferable. 

-»«•.-« — — — 

HEW TH£0SY OF THE AUBOKA, 

The English Mechanic publishes the views of Dr. Wolf ert, 
a German observer, on the nature and origin of the aurora 
borealis . which, it will be noticed, are based on speculations 
which do not connect the phenomenon with a magnetic or 
•lectric source. Dr. Wolf ert says: "The sun's rays, falling 
on the earth, are variously reflected according as they fall 
vertically or at- an angle more or less Obtuse. The earth 
being conceived as a large mirror, many of the obliquely in- 
cident lays will be reflected to a part of the celestial vault 
on the night side of the earth." The zodiacal light he as- 
cribes to the irregular reflection of sunlight from water, and 
similarly the vast fields of Ice in the polar regions, he con- 
siders, may be regarded as an imperfect mirror irregularly 
reflecting the incident light. The rays which fall most ob- 
liquely are the most abundantly reflected ; and as the quantii 



The grounds on which Dr. Wolfert rejects the ordinary 
hypothesis of the aurora may here be briefly stated. The 
strongest reason given for supposing a magnetic origin of the 
aurora is that the phenomenon seems to originate in the 
quarter to which the needle points. It is replied that in ex- 
peditions to Boothia Felix and Melville Island, the needle 
has in these places taken a vertical position and even at 
times pointed southward, while the aurora appeared in the 
north as usual. If the aurora consisted of a streaming of 
electricity from the magnetic pole, it would be difficult to 
explain how an observer at the pole always sees the light 
beyond the horizon as at other places. When lightning 
strikes a ship, the compasses become irrecoverably useless. 
But ships have ventured in the midst of these (supposed) 
currents from the pole, and their compasses have been but 
temporarily disordered. Neither man nor beast suffer from 
such currents nor do sensitive electrometers show any change 
in atmospheric electricity when the phenomenon ocours. 

It is said that the needle shows irregularities before the au- 
rora. But this is by no means a constant occurrence. The polar 
light and the electric (disturbing) currents may have a com- 
mon cause. Heat also diminishes the attractive force of 
magnets, and this might account for the variation of the 
needle. If the phenomena were electric it would be diffi- 
cult to account for their punctual regularity of appearance 
and disappearance in northern regions. This is explained, 
however, when we connect them with the sun. 

In recent times, it has been supposed that the sun spots 
are in some way connected with the aurora. The recurring 
frequency of the latter every ten or eleven years is found to 
coincide with the periodicmaximaof the former. Dr. Wolfert 
suggests the following as a possible explanation : If it be 
true that the spots diminish the solar radiation, the cold 
winters that recur in these periods may be thus caused. 
Now cold winters imply an extension of the polar ice south- 
wards, and therewith an enlargement of the reflecting surface 
in the same direction. 

■'■ — i ■ - •» « #» m- ' ■ ■ -■■ 



An Iron Boomerang, 

A locomotive lately exploded at Lafayette, Ind., and the 
Journal of that city says thait a large piece of iron, weigh- 
ing about a hundred pounds, in the shape of the segment 
of a circle, was projected from the wreck, and struck the 
wall of Levering and Abernathy's saw mill about three feet 
from the ground, going through that and a partition within, 
lodging against the inside north wall, and playing sad havoc 
With the contents of the office through which it passed. The 
distance from where the locomotive stood was three hundred 



leagues from the sulphurous springs of San Vicente to the sea 
shore, wells have been sunk and the bituminous matter ob- 
tained in a liquid state. At the upper part of many of the 
wells, it is found in hard compact masses. The crude pe- 
troleum is of a dark brownish color, which gets darker with 
the greater consistence of the oil. 

The manner of working the wells is exceedingly primitive 
as the inhabitants have neither the knowledge nor the im- 
plements required. Pits from ten to twelve feet deep are 
dug in the sand till clay is reached, and when the oil, which 
oozes from all sides, has filled them it is dipped out. Near 
the wells are rude furnaces built with sun-dried clay on which 
are open iron boilers. The bituminous matter is thrown into 
these vessels and cooked until all the volatile products dis- 
appear and leave a thick pitch. 



"To Whom it may Concern." 

Mr. D. D. T. Moore, publisher of the Sural New Yorker, 
closes his volume for 1872 with the following sensible an- 
nouncement : 

" The editor and founder of this journal hereby announces 
his retirement, as speedily as possible, from all business 
enterprises, offices, etc., not connected with its manage- 
ment. Having during the past twenty years permanently 
invested, for the ostensible benefit of individuals and the 
public, through the persuasion of friends, various small and 
large amounts— and meantime held sundry time-absorbing 
and otherwise expensive offices of trust and honor (but not 
one sinecure), our ambition is amply satisfied, and the de- 
cision now made and recorded " means business." There- 
fore all persons wanting to borrow money, place us in office, 
or make us rich by the use of "only a trifle" of -our cur- 
rency, time or influence, are advised that we are " not at 
home " to or persuadable by any such applicants. In fact 
we cheerfully forego all such chances for fame and fabulous 
wealth as seductive speculators and systematic swindlers 
have aforetime beguiled us with, and notify each and all of 
like proclivities that we shall in future not only believe in 
but be guided by the wise proverb which saith "all labor is 
profitable, but the talk of the lips tendeth only to penury." 
And, moreover, all who have designs upon us will find said 
proverb posted, in plain print, upon the walls of our office 
and sanctum." 

■ ■»» m 

The big pig of Connecticut for 1872, killed in December, 
weighed 720 lbs. dressed. Stratford enjoys the honor. 
Piggy was fed on pork rinds during his youth ; but for the 
last four months the diet was corn meal. 



© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January ii, 1873.] 



Sf timtxtxt %vmxau. 



l 9 



PB0FE8S0E TYNDALL ON LIGHT— SECOND LECTXTEE. 

THE PKOCESSBS OP SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT. 

What is this thing which, under the name of " light," we 
'have been generating, reflecting, refracting and analyzing? 
' The question cannot be considered, much less answered, with- 
■ out transporting oneself to a world which underlies the sensi- 
ble one and out of which, in accordance withrigid law, all op- 
tical phenomena spring. To realize tbis sub-sensible world, 
the mind must possess a certain pictorial power ; it must 
visualize the invisible. The imagination must be exercised, 
and the magic of its art consists, not in creating thing3 
anew, but in so changing the relations of sensible things as to 
render them fit for the requirements of the intellect in the 
sub-sensible world. As an illustration of this subject, the 
case of Newton may be cited. Before he began to deal with 
light, he was intimately acquainted with the laws of elastic 
collision. With this previous knowledge, the material for 
theoretic images, he had only to change the magnitude of 
conceptions already in his mind to arrive at the emission 
theory of light. He supposed light to consist of elastic par- 
ticles of inconceivable minuteness shot out with inconceiva- 
ble rapidity from luminous bodies, and that such particles, 
impinging upon smooth surfaces, were reflected in accord- 
ance with the law of elastic collision. Dropping vertically 
downward toward the earth's surface, the motion of a body is 
accelerated as it approaches the earth. The particles of light 
Newton believed were acted upon in a similar manner, and 
he supposed that, on approaching a surface obliquely, they 
were drawn down upon it exactly as a projectile is drawn 
by gravity to the surface of the earth. This deflection, ac- 
cording to Newton, was refraction, and he imagined that dif- 
ferences in color were produced by particles of different mag- 
nitudes impinging upon the retina. 

The verifications of physical theory occur in the world fo 
sense. Laying the theoretic conception at the root of mat- 
ters, we determine by rigid deduction what are the phenom- 
ena which must of necessity grow out of this root : If the 
phenomena thus deduced agree with those of the actual 
world, it is a presumption in favor of the theory. If, as new 
classes of phenomena arise, they also are found to harmon- 
ize with theoretic deduction, the presumption becomes still 
stronger. If, finally, the theory confers prophetic vision 
upon the investigator, enabling him to predict the existence 
of phenomena which have never yet been seen, and if those 
predictions be found on trial to be rigidly correct, the per- 
suasion of the truth of the theory becomes overpowering. 

After alluding to the supporters of Newton's theory, 
among whom were Laplace, Malus, Biot and Brewster, the 
lecturer proceeded to explain the 

UNDULATORY THEORY OP LIGHT AND ITS ORIGIN. 

The conception of an ether was advocated by Huyghens 
and the mathematician Euler, but it was reserved for Thomas 
Young to discover the resemblances which exist between 
the phenomena of light and those of wave motion. Profes- 
sor Tyndall paid an earnest tribute to the genius of this phi- 
losopher, placing him on a level but little belowthat of New- 
ton, and then proceeded to describe the general theory of 
wave motion : 

The propagation of a wave is the propagation of a form, 
and not the transference of the substance which constitutes 
the wave. 

The length of the wave is the distance from crest to crest, 
while the distance through which the individual particles 
oscillate is called the amplitude of the oscillation. You will 
notice that in this description the particles of water are made 
to vibrate across the line of propagation. Picture two se- 
ries of waves intersecting each other and proceeding 
from two centres of disturbance. The motion of every par- 
ticle of water is the algebraic sum of all the motions im- 
parted to it. If crest coincide with crest, the wave is lifted 
to a double hight ; if furrow coincide with crest, the mo- 
tions are in opposition and their sum is zero. 

THE ANALOGY BETWEEN SOUND AND LIGHT. 

Young's fundamental discovery was the principle of inter- 
ference applied to light. We can imagine the air of a room 
to be traversed by a series of sound waves, and that a second 
series be propagated, so related to the first that condensation 
coincides with condensation and rarefaction with rarefaction. 
The consequence would be a louder sound than would be 
produced by either set of waves singly. But we can also im- 
agine a state of things where the condensations of the one 
system fall upon the rarefactions of the other, when the two' 
systems neutralize each other, and thus by adding sound to 
sound we produce silence. Now, in a similar manner, by 
adding light and light together, we may obtain darkness. 
There is, however, a fundamental 

DIPPERENCE BETWEEN LIGHT AND SOUND WAVES. 

Could we see the air through which sound waves are pass- 
ing, we would observe every individual particle of air oscil- 
lating to and fro in the direction of propagation. Could we 
see the ether, we would also find every individual particle 
making a small excursion to and fro ; but here the motion 
above referred to would be across the line of propagation. 
The vibrations of air are longitudinal, those of ether, trans- 
versal. 

To illustrate this point, Professor Tyndall threw on the 
screen a line of light dots as at Fig. 1, representing air par- 
ticles in a wave of sound. At A is a condensation, at B a 
rarefaction. These were drawn upon a^blackened glass disk 
and placed in the lantern. When the disk was rotated, the 
dots that were closed at A separated, and those that were 
separated, as at B, closed, the motion being kept up along the 
■Whole line. From Fig. 1, combined with Figs. 2 and 3, the 
motion of a particle of air acted upon by sound may be do. 



termined. Let A be such a particle in Fig. 1, in the midst of 
the condensed portion of the wave. In Fig. 2 the wave of 
condensation has become one of rarefaction, and the particle 
A has travelled along half a wave length, or to the center of 



s ♦♦♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ .♦ ♦ ♦♦♦<,♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

s ♦ ♦ ♦♦> ♦♦♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 



m ^♦♦^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦> ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



the rarefied wave. In Fig. 3 this same particle has returned 
to its former position. It has consequently made an excur- 
sion to and fro over the length, X Y, oscillating, in other 
words, throughout this distance. 

An undulation, X Y, Fig. 4, composed of a series of par- 




ticles in spiral shape, then appeared upon the screen. By 
rotating a disk similar to the one above described, these 
waves alternately appeared as in X Y and X' Y'. Now, 
bearing in mind the example of a wave in water, we may un- 
derstand how an undulation may progress while the parti- 
cles of fluid simply oscillate up and down. Let us consider 
seas two particles on the crest of the undulations X Y, and 
e g as other particles in a furrow. Imagine these waves to roll 
on in the direction of the large arrow until a furrow is sub- 
stituted for a crest and vice versd, or until the medium takes 
up the undulation X' Y'. Then the particles a and c will 
have descended to b d and the particles e g ascended to / h. 
Consequently the particles will not advance longitudinally 
(as we explained those in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 did on the line X Y), 
but will simply rise and fall on the vertical lines ab, cd, fe, 
etc. 

• INTERFERENCE. 

The most familiar illustration of the interference of sound 
waves is furnished by beats in music, which are produced 
by two musical sounds slightly of tune. Professor Tyndall 
here brought forward two large tuning forks tuned in uni- 
son, and swept a bow across each. A loud musical note filled 
the air. He then attached a cent to one of the forks, which 
somewhat retarded its vibrations. He explained that if, for 
instance, the difference between the forks now were such that 
while one fork made 100 vibrations the other made 101, it 
would result that at everv hundredth vibration the wave 
would combine to form the iiighest wave, that is, the loudest 
sound, and half way between these the crest of one wave 
would meet the furrow of the other, making the least wave 
and the lowest sound. This effect of increasing and decreas- 
ing sound was very plainly audible. The speaker then put 
another cent on the loaded fork and the differences of sound 
succeeded each other with greater rapidity. 

To show these facts optically, the light was reflected from 
a small mirror on the prong of a tuning fork to the screen, 
appearing as a small luminous circle. By vibrating the fork 
the circle lengthened out into a line, by reflecting which 
from a looking glass and sweeping the same rapidly about, 
a luminous scroll appeared, showing by the depth of its sin- 
uosities the amplitude of the vibrations. 

OPTICAL DEMONSTRATION OP INTERFERENCE. 

Fig. 5 shows the apparatus used for this purpose. The 
ray from the lantern passes through the lens A, is reflected 




from a small mirror on tuning fork B, thence to another 
mirror on fork C, and thence to the screen. When the forks 
vibrated in unison a luminous band, D E, appeared. When 
one, as the lecturer expressed it, was "jockeyed" with the 
weight of a cent, the band alternately shortened and length- 
ened. By reflecting this from a looking glass, as before, the 
sinuosities on the screen appeared as in Fig. 6, their differ 




ing depths expressing the intensity of the alternate increase 
and diminution of the sound. 

PITCH. 

The pitch of a sound is wholly determined by the rapidity 
of the vibration, as the intensity is by the amplitude. To 
show the rise of pitch by the rapidity of the impulses, Pro- 
fessor Tyndall explained a form of siren shown in Fig. 7. 
At A is a perforated disk rotated by the wheel B over a cyl; 
inderj In the end of the latter against which the disk rels 



volves are orifices similar to those of the disk, so that coin- 
cidences occur. Air is forced into the cylinder from the bel- 
lows. When the apertures in the disk coincide with those 
in the cylinder, a puff escapes ; and when these puffs succeed 
each other so as to form a musical sound, the more rapid the 
rotation of the disk is, the quicker are the impulses and the 




higher the pitch of the note. By this means any number of 
vibrations due to a sound may be determined. Passing the 
light through the cylinder and lens, the perforations ap- 
peared on the screen as shown. Then by forcing in air and 
rapidly revolving the disk, producing a dismal species of cat- 
erwaul, the lecturer reflected the luminous dots on the screen 
from a hand mirror. On vibrating the latter the most cu- 
rious undulatory sinuosities appeared — circles interwoven 
with each other wonderfully intricately, besides other singular 
combinations of form. 

PITCH IS THE ANALOGUE OP COLOR. 

The waves of light have been measured, and it has been 
found that the more refrangible the light, the shorter are its 
producing waves. The shortest are those of the extreme vio- 
let, the longest, those of the extreme red. The length of a 
wave of the latter is such that it would require 36,918 placed 
end to end to cover one inch ; of the former, 64,631 would be 
needed to occupy a similar space. The number of shocks on 
the retina corresponding to red is four hundred and fifty -ono 
millions of millions, to violet, seven hundred and eighty- 
nine millions of millions. All space is filled with matter os- 
cillating at such rates, and in ether, just as in water, the mo- 
tion of every particle is the algebraic sum of all the separate 
motions imparted to it. 

WHAT IS DARKNESS? 

The principle of interference applies to the waves of light 
the same as it does to waves of water or sound. Let A, Fig. 




8, be a wave of light. Suppose that two series of these light 
waves start from a common origin, B. Then their parts cor- 
respond and the systems blend together in double amplitude. 
Suppose they start as at C, one wave a whole wave length 
ahead of the other ; again they coincide and we have in- 
creased luminous effect. At D the second wave starts two 
wave lengths ahead ; the result is still the same. But if ono 
system start half a wave length in advance as at E, one and 
a half as at F, or an odd number of half way lengths, then 
the crests of one system fall upon the sinuses of the other. 
Opposite forces, indicated by the little arrows in E, are 
brought into play. Stillness of the ether is the result of 
their joint action. This quietude is darkness and corre- 
sponds with a dead level in the case of water. 

CONDITIONS FOR THE GENESIS OP COLOR. 

If we have in interference an agency by which light may 
be self extinguished, we have in it the conditions for the pro- 
duction of color. Whence, then, are derived the colors of 
the soap bubble ? Imagine a beam of white light imping- 
ing on a bubble. When it reaches the first surface of 
the film, a known fraction of the light is reflected back. But 
a large portion of the beam enters the film, reaches the sec- 
ond surface and is again in part reflected. The waves from 
the second surface thus turn back and hotly pursue the 
waves from the first surface. And, if the thickness of the 
film be such as to cause the necessary retardation, the two 
systems of waves interfere with each other, producing aug 
mented or diminished light, quadrupling it, or totally extin- 
guishing it, as the case may be. But, inasmuch as the 
waves of light are of different lengths, it is plain that, to 
produce self-extinction in the case of the longer waves, a 
greater thickness of film is necessary than in the case of the 
shorter ones. When, therefore, the red is quenched, the 
blue and green are not quenched ; hence the production of 
color in the case of thin plates. 

Various beautiful experiments illustrating this theory were 
then made. The colors of a thin layer of oil on the surface 
of water were projected upon the screen. Also, the hues de- 
rived from a thin film of air, compressed between two pieces 
of glass ; and lastly, reflected light was thrown through a soap 
bubble, covering the screen with the most gorgeous prismatic 
tints. 



©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



20 



JF timtxik %mmtm. 



[JANUARY II, 1873. 



NEWTON S KINGS 

were then carefully explained, and on curved flat surfaces 
being pressed together, the curves were beautifully apparent 
when thrown by the lantern upon the screen. The interfer- 
ence of the waves caused by the varying thickness of the 
film of air was described and the colors produced pointed out. 
Then tinted glasses were interposed, and by the monochro- 
matic light the number of rings was greatly increased, so 
that the whole light circle given by the instrument seemed 
to be covered with a ripple of alternate light and darkness. 
Professor Tyndall then entered upon a lengthy explana- 
tion of Newton's method of accounting for the above phe- 
nomena in connection with the emission theory. The refer- 
ence to 

OTHER COLORS DUB TO INTERFERENCE 

concluded the lecture. 

Fine scratches drawn upon glass or polished metal reflect 
the waves of light from their sides ; and some, being reflected 
from opposite sides of the same furrow, interfere with each 
other and quench each other. But the obliquity of reflec- 
tion which extinguishes the shorter waves does not extin- 
guish the longer ones, hence the phenomena of color. These 
are called the colors of striated surfaces. They are well il- 
lustrated by mother-of-pearl. This shell is composed of ex- 
ceedingly thin layers, which, when cut across by the polish- 
ing of the shell, expose their edges and furnish the necessary 
small and regular grooves. The most conclusive proof that 
the colors are due to the mechanical state of the surface is to 
be found in the fact that, by stamping the shell carefully 
upon black sealing wax, we transfer the grooves, and pro- 
duce upon the wax the colors. 



$0nt$iwwtetf. 



Certain Properties of the Solar Rays. 

To the Editor of the Scientific American : 

I thank you for giving insertion in the Scientific Amer- 
ican (November 16) to my paper on the solar rays, and also 
for recently calling attention to the importance of the inqui- 
ry. Having myself often derived pleasure and instruction 
from your editorial articles on the higher branches of phys- 
ics, I may be permitted to express my sense of the great 
value, as well as of the enlightened spirit pervading its 
columns, of the influential organ of scientific information 
over which you preside. 

With respect to the repetition of my experiments, you will, 
I am sure, agree with me as to the indispensable necessity, in 
any such steps, of reproducing carefully and fully the essential 
conditions present when the original observation was made. 
It would hence obviously be quite useless to attempt to ob- 
tain here, in the midst of a freezing December, illustrations 
of solar power equal to those witnessed last July and Au- 
gust, when the thermometer at noon was seldom under 90°, 
and when people were every day prostrated by heat in the 
streets of New York. 

My latest experiments, those with albumen, were per- 
formed at the end of September, when the sun's power had 
considerably declined, and within a month I placed at the 
disposal of a scientific journal, circulating throughout the 
civilized world, a simple statement of the chief facts noticed, 
and of the conditions under which the observations were 
made, authenticating this statement by attaching to it my 
name and professional status in England. I really do not 
see that I could have dona more. 

In taking this course, I expected and hoped that my exper- 
iments would speedily be repeated and verified. For among 
the numerous readers of the Scientific American, many 
doubtless reside in tropical districts, where conditions simi- 
lar to those existing here last midsummer continue through- 
out the greater part of the year. The experiments are so 
simple (merely requiring an ordinary lens such as those used 
for examining photographs) that any person can repeat them. 
If any of your readers, thus favorably circumstanced, should 
be willing to perform this service in the cause of science, it 
would be a satisfaction to me to know the results, positive or 
negative, the actual conditions present as to season, place, 
temperature, clearness of atmosphere, etc., being detailed; 
or, if more agreeable, these communications can be addressed 
to you editorially. 

If, in experimenting, any more minute directions should be 
required, 1 shall be glad to give any information in my power 
in reply to letters addressed to me, post office box No. 2,622, 
New York. 

It will be observed that the experiments arrange them- 
selves into three groups, namely: 1. Those on living animal 
tissues under water. 2. Those with albumen. 3. Those on 
the penetration by the sun's rays of certain opaque and other 
media. And, as a general rule, the solar power required to 
produce satisfactory results in eaoh group follows the same 
order. 

In reference to my mode of experimenting, I may observe 
that an eminent telegraphic engineer in India has success- 
fully employed the nerves of the finger and tongue to detect 
the escape of electricity from badly insulated wires, and 
has found this plan preferable in practice to any artificial 
test. Neither should it be forgotten that an apparently trivial 
physiological observation was the seed from which sprung 
the scit nee of galvanism with all its ubiquitous and mag- 
nificent associations. 

Nor are my experiments on the penetrating power of the 
sun's rays at all inconsistent with the facts observed by 
various eminent philosophers, or with the legitimate infer- 
ences from these facts Thus Melloni found that the 
penetrating power of rays of heat, emanating from various 
artificially heated bodies, as tested by different media, 



was directly proportioned to the actual temperature of the 
body from which those rays proceeded. What then can be 
more natural than that the concentrated rays of by far the 
hottest body known to us — the sun — should possess an ex- 
traordinary power of penetrating even many opaque media '! 
The truth is that the facts of nature are always in harmony 
with each other. It is only man's reasonings and specula- 
tions on these facts that are liable to change and error. 

In one respect you have slightly misunderstood the pur- 
port of my paper. I ' ' claim" nothing but to have performed 
certain experiments, under certain specified conditions aud 
with certain uniform results. I merely alluded to one or two 
possible explanations of the phenomena described, but ex- 
pressly reserved any definite conclusions until more facts 
bearing upon the question should be accumulated, either by 
myself or others. And in the concluding sentence I referred 
pointedly to the obscurity still surrounding the subject, and 
to the necessity for its further systematic investigation. 

In employing this guarded language I had in view chiefly 
the physiological relations of the solar forces, a field of re- 
search yet almost untrodden, but of the highest importance 
both to science and to humanity. For while every practical 
physician and every student of hygiene feels compelled to rec- 
ognize the great influence which the solar emanations exercise 
upon the human body in health and disease, how little do 
we know of the rationale or conditions of their action ! It 
has often seemed to me remarkable that, notwithstanding our 
boasted modern progress, the ancients actually knew more 
or at least made more practical use in the arts and in medi- 
cine of the heating and stimulating effects of the sun's rays 
than we do. 

The whole subject demands extensive experimental exam- 
ination, for the range of the inquiry is immense. Each sun- 
beam may indeed be regarded as a little world, peopled by a 
host of active forces, so intimately commingled and united that 
the utmost ingenuity of man has not yet succeeded in thor- 
oughly unraveling and clearly individualizing a single thread 
of that mystic cord. 

What do we know positively of the nature of light or heat 
or actinism, or of their relations to each other and to elec- 
tricity and to the vital forces ? 

In conclusion, I need scarcely say that it will be very grat- 
ifying to me if the rude, desultory observations, commenced 
amid the fogs of the east coast of England, should obtain 
even a partial fruition under the more potent sun and brighter 
skies of America. 

New York city. George Robinson, M. U. 



Are not the Elements molecules! 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

One of the tenets of the modern atomic theory, namely, 
that no compound can exist where the valences of its com 
ponent elements are not all satisfied, is universally acceded 
to by writers on chemistry ; but in the very face of this state- 
ment, they nearly all rush into what appears to the writer to 
be a rank absurdity and inconsistency, and perhaps on the 
very next page they will assert that certain elements, foi 
instance tin, antimony, platinum, etc., are endowed with the 
extraordinary faculty of behaving as dyads, triads, tetrads, 
or pentads, indifferently, according to circumstances. A con- 
venient and full explanation occurs to me, by which this ap- 
parent inconsistency may be accounted for. Imprimis: To 
me it appears just as irrational to assert that an elementcan 
exist where its valences are not all satisfied as that a com- 
pound can. What then becomes of the other two valences of 
the tetrad tin, in the case of stannous chloride, Sn CI 2 '! or 
of the other two, in the case of antimonious chloride, Sb CI 3 ? 
My answer to these queries is, not that the valences have 
vanished, but that they are fully active in satisfying those 
of another similar molecule, or, in other words, the respec- 

Sn IT CI 2 Sb T Cl 3 

tive formula; for the above salts are ] and || 

Sn 1 '" CI 2 Sb T Cl ;! . 

And now for the deduction from the following facts : If an- 
timony be dissolved in HC1, the trichloride, SbCP, is only 
obtained, and in the case of tin, the bichloride, SnCl 2 , where- 
as, by projecting powdered Sb into chlorine gas, the penta- 
chloride, or, of tin, the tetrachloride, is obtained. My de- 
duction is that tin, antimony, or any other element, as a 
single atom, cannot exist, but that every latom, in the un- 
combined state, is bound by all its valences to one of its own 

Sb T , 
number. Antimony, then, is ] and when acted on by 

Sb T 
HC1, where the negative affinity of the CI is in a measure 
masked by the H, it is only capable of separating three of 

Sb CI 3 
the Sb valences, and |) results. Project antimony, on 

SbCl 3 
the other hand, into CI gas, and now the powerful negative 
affinity of the CI, not being diluted by the H, is capable of 
cutting apart all five of the antimony valences, and Sb CI 5 is 
obtained. The same is true of tin, and, in fact, instances 
might be added ad infinitum ; but is not the above sufficient V 
My conclusion, then, is, that the elements are constant in 
their saturating power, and under all circumstances are en- 
dowed with the maximum number of valences which they 
show under any circumstances. R- D. W. 

-^-. ^ .«■ 

Well Equipped Railroads. 
To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

The instances of great railroad corporations being com- 
pletely equipped with all the latest improvements, to render 
their patrons and employees secure and add to their comfort, 
are so rare that I request a small space of your valuable, 
most widely circulated, and carefully read paper to give pub- 



Lieutenant Wheeler's Expedition. 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

I was a member of a party which, for the purposes of ex- 
ploration, was fitted out last July at Camp Douglas, Utah, 
and left on the 28th of that month for Eastern Nevada and 
Northern Arizona. The expedition was divided into two 
main bodies, one intending to take a line south as far as 
Beaver, the other to go to Nevada, and thence to Beaver, 
and to explore all the country between the first part}' and the 
Nevada State lino. From Beaver, we divided ourselves into 
four sections, and continued south. The country was found 
to be very rich with silver, coal, and iron, and may be described 
as a good field for the geologist and the artist. The scenery 
is beautiful, and there is every variety of stone, limestone, 
sandstone, and granite being very plentiful. There are dia- 
monds as good as in Arizona to be found in Utah, within 
100 miles of Salt Lake city. The great drawback to the 
locality is poor water and no rain in summer. There is now 
being constructed, southward from Salt Lake city, a rail- 
road of which about 35 miles is complete. It will 
run to or near St. George, which is a lively Mormon settle- 
ment. Here cotton, castor beans, peaches, grapes, and all 
fruits needing a warm climate, grow in abundance. Cotton 
and woolen mills are scattered through the country. The 
whole of the party will have arrived back in Camp Douglas, 
by December 20, except one man who was drowned. 

Utah Territory. A. F. M. 



licity and due credit to a great line of travel to the far west, 
embraced in three roads, the Chicago, Burlington find Quincy, 
Hannibal and St. Joseph, and Kansas Pacific. These have 
tried all the real improvements offered and have adopted tke 
best, consequently the air brakes, jointed rails, self- couplings 
for cars, a complete arrangement for heating 1 and ventilating; 
smooth, well ballasted road bed, and efficient system of sig- 
nals are adopted by them ; these, with a well paid and con- 
sequently a good class of conductors, engineers and brake- 
men, who, feeling that the spirits administering these lines 
mean to excel, are to a corresponding degree inspired to ex- 
ert greater care and attention to their duties, render these 
roads great public benefactors. 

By publishing this, you may wake up some of the manag- 
ers of the dormant roads, who can never see the benefit de- 
rived from making improvements. John Whiteford. 

Detroit, Mich. 



Explosions produced by High tVotes. 

A large portion of the explosives known to chemists con- 
tain more or less nitrogen. The simplest, and one of the 
most unstable, of these is the compound of iodine with ni- 
trog-en. The iodide of nitrogen, as it is called, is very easily 
prepared by dissolving finely powdered iodine in concen- 
trated ammonia and filtering. The filter paper is removed 
from the funnel while wet, and is torn in small strips, which 
are spread around to dry. Although entirely harmless while 
moist, as soon as it is dry the compound explodes by the 
slightest touch with a loud report. What seems most re- 
markable is that it may be exploded by certain high notes 
and sharp sounds. 

The following interesting experiments with this sub- 
stance were recently made by Champion and Pellet : Two 
long glass tubes 13 millimeters in diameter and 24 meters in 
total length were joined by a strip of paper, and pieces of 
paper with '03 grammes iodide of nitrogen placed in each 
end. Upon detonating one of these with a hot wire, the 
other also exploded. That the explosion was not occa- 
sioned by the pressure of the air was proved by placing a 
small light pendulum in the tube, and this pendulum ivas 
not swayed by the explosion any more than it would bt by 
blowing into the tube with the mouth. Small quantities of 
the iodide of nitrogen were fastened on the deep strings of a 
contra-bass, bass viol and violin, and the string caused to vi- 
brate. The deep tones produced no explosion, but a loud 
one instantly followed when the vibrations exceeded 00 
in number. The very high notes produced by touching the 
strings between the bridge and the tail piece also exploded 
the iodide. 

Experiments tried with Chinese tamtams gave the same 
results ; the bass instrument failed to explode it, but the 
more rapidly vibrating one, which gave a higher note, al- 
ways caused the explosion. Two parabolic concave mir- 
rors, 20 inches in diameter, were stationed 8|- feet apart, and 
paper containing a few grammes of iodide of nitrogen placed 
in the focus of one mirror and half way between the mir- 
rors. In the focus of the other mirror a drop of nitro-gly- 
cerin was exploded, which caused the explosion of the iodids 
in the focus of the first mirror but not of that half way be- 
tween the mirrors. Although other explosives fired oft in 
the focus of the second mirror will produce a like effect, yet 
this is not due, as might be claimed, to the heat, since 0'03 
grammes of nitro-glycerin, which produces no more heat 
than 0'9 grammes of gunpowder, will produce an explosion 
requiring 8 to 10 grammes of powder. The mirrors were 
then obscured with smoke, when 10 grammes of powder were 
unable to explode the iodide, but, even under these condi- 
tions, 0'03 grammes of nitro-glycerin sufficed to accomplish 
the result. 

»-.»._«» 

A MAN out West wants a patent on an invention calculated 
to prevent the bungding method of executing criminals, that 
has now grown so common. In case the verteJirse of the 
condemned are not scientifically dislocated at the first fall, 
the rope instantly lowers the victim safely to the ground, 
lassoes the sheriff and his assistants, jerks them fifty feet 
\ into the air and drops them on the nearest picket fence 
I This device is known as the " Automatic Avenger." 



©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January ii, 1873.] 



Jfruntiffc jUttmflm. 



21 



Printing Presses. 

Probably the machine which attracted the most atten- 
tion at the London International Exhibition, last year, was 
the Walter press, used for printing the Times, represent- 
ing, as it does, what may be termed a revolution in newspaper 
printing, and being also exhibited for the first time to the 
public. It is constructed on a principle which it is now seen 
is the only road to progress in the designing of fast printing 
machines — namely, a continuous roll of paper continually 
being brought between the impression cylinders. Hoe's ma- 
chine, which was a great improvement in this direction, is 
completely eclipsed by the Walter, which saves an enor- 
mous quantity of labor, and delivers the papers, printed on 
both sides, at the rate of about 12,000 an hour. The Ameri- 
can Hoe 10 feeder, by an arrangement of flyers, dispensed 
with takers off, but required ten persons to lay on the 
sheets. The Walter, on the contrary, requires neither 
layers on nor takers off, but, as a matter of fact, two persons 
attend the sheets as they are laid down by the machine, in 
order to avoid any hitch in the process or any delay to the 
progress of the work. [The Walter machine is a modification 
of the new American machine known as the Bullock press, 
largely used in the United States.] In the Hoe, at each of 
the places for delivery of the printed sheets, a frame work 
of laths was provided, which, actuated by cams, moved 
through the space of a quarter of a circle. When this 
■flyer stood at right angles to the delivery board, it was in 
a position to receive the sheet from the tapeB which brought 
it from the printing cylinder. Having obtained its burden, 
it commenced the descent, deposited the sheet on the heap, 
and returned for another. This operation was, or rather is, 
for the machine is still used by some morning papers and 
Lloyd's, performed with such regularity that takers off 
were dispensed with, all that was required being the removal 
of the heap when a certain number of papers had been de- 
posited on it. The Walter, on the other hand, while pre- 
serving this feature in a modified form, dispenses with 
layers on. The paper is supplied in an immense roll, 
containing generally some 6,000 sheets, and is mounted at 
one end of the machine. The end is passed through an ar- 
rangement of four rollers covered with blanket, one of 
which dips into a trough of water, so that the paper is equal- 
ly damped, while the pressure exerted by the others — the 
grip being necessary to insiure the advance of the web and 
the unrolling of the cylinder of paper — also secures the 
requisite uniformity of dampness in the substance of the 
paper. The paper thus damped passes to the printing cylin- 
ders, four in number, placed one above another, the upper 
and lower of which carry the stereotype plates, and the two 
inner being the impression cylinders proper, pressing the 
sheet between their blanket covered surfaces and the face of 
the type. From the printing cylinders the paper, now 
printed on both sides, passes to the dividing rollers, where 
the web is cut up into newspapers. These rollers consist of 
two blank cylinders, the circumferences of which are equal 
to the breadth of the open sheet of the Times. Between 
these the printed web of paper is passed on its way from the 
printing cylinders to the tapes by which it is to be distributed. 
In «b© of these blank cylinders is a deep fluting parallel to 
the axis ; this is a sheath into which the edge of the knife 
enters. In the other cylinder is a projecting knife having on 
each side of its entire length a copper guard held in projec- 
tion by springs. If pressure is exerted on these copper 
guards, they are depressed and the knife exposed. When 
the pressure is removed, the springs recover their position. 
When the guard approaches the deep fluted roller, it is de- 
pressed, and between it and the upper roller the web of 
paper is held for a very small fraction of a second. With a 
rapidity too great for the powers of vision the knife acts, 
the other side of the cut being held by the other spring. But 
the separation is not yet complete, The knife is not one 
continuous blade, but is formed of long angular projections ; 
these perforate the paper so that the sheets are N nearly, but 
not quite, separated, a narrow strip being also left unperfor- 
ated at each margin to preserve the integrity of the sheet till 
the web has entered between the endless tapes. Theso tapes 
pass over two rollers, the sheet being gripped between, and 
as they are revolving at a higher velocity than the web is 
traveling, the sheet is separated and conveyed to the distrib- 
uting frame slightly in advance of the succeeding sheet. 
This frame consists of a flyer, working backwards and 
forwards between uprights. The sheets pass over a roller 
at the top of these uprights, and are laid down by the flyer 
alternately on either side, the distance traveled over by the 
frame, or flyer, being sufficient to deposit the newspaper in 
a place of safety, and to afford time for the next paper to 
advance so far that it is deposited on the other side by the 
return motion of the flyer. 



Metallic Manganese. 

Although manganese is one of the most abundant metals, 
possessing great hardness, and, from its close resemblance 
in many respects to iron, we might expect to find it of great 
use in the arts, its reduction from its ores has been so dim- 
cult and expensive that metallic manganese is to-day a cu- 
riosity found only in the college collections and metallurgi- 
cal museums. Mr. Hugo Tamm has recently succeeded in 
inventing a flux, or rather two fluxes, which seem to solve 
the problem and promise to give us cast manganese in large 
quantities at reasonable prices. 

A white flux is first made from : Pulverized glass (free from 
lead), 63 '0 parts ; quick lime, 18 - 5 parts ; fluor spar, 18 - 5 parts. 

Of this white flux he takes 34 parts and mixes it with 5 5 
parts lampblack or soot and 60 - 5 parts good pyrolusite or 
black oxide of manganese. When fused in a suitably pro- 
tected cnwible, heobtains 17 - 5 parts of crude manganese and 



a beautiful olive green slag, which is pulverized and used 
for reducing more of the ore, under the name of green flux. 

A crucible which will withstand a white heat for hours is 
then lined with a mixture of 3 parts graphite and 1 part fire 
clay stirred up with water to a thick dough. This lining 
protects the crucible from the action of the flux, which at 
that high temperature would destroy even a graphite cruci- 
ble. 

When about to begin the operation of reducing the ore, 91 
parts of good soot or lampblack are intimately mixed with 
1,000 parts of pyrolusite, after which 635 parts of the 
green flux above mentioned is slightly mixed with it, and 
enough of any sort of oil added to moisten the mass. The 
charge is next pressed into the crucible and covered with a 
thick, round, wooden cover, which is, of course, charred in 
the fusion, and thus protects the contents. Over this is 
placed a cover of graphite or clay, an opening only being left 
for the escape of the gases generated during fusion. 

The crucible and contents are first heated gradually as long 
as gases are given off, then the heat is rapidly increased by 
a blast up to a white heat and kept there several hours, the 
time depending on the size of the charge; When the reduc- 
tion is completed, the heat is lessened and the crucible al- 
lowed to cool before the contents are removed. The olive 
green slag is ground up and used again, mixed with about 
one tenth its weight of white flux. 

The manganese obtained in this way contains about 3 per 
cent of impurities, principally iron, aluminum, silicon and 
carbon. The contaminations being similar to those in cast 
iron, Mr. Tamm proposes to call it " cast manganese." It 
may be refined according to Berthier's method, by fusing in 
a fire clay crucible with one eighth its weight of carbonate 
of manganese, a wooden cover being used to prevent oxida- 
tion. 

The value of Mr. Tamm's discovery becomes evident when 
we compare the simplicity and cheapness of his process with 
those previously employed. Brunner obtained it by.reduc- 
ing the chloride or fluoride with sodium, after the method of 
Deville in preparing aluminum. It had also been obtained 
in small quantities by repeated fusions of the protoxide with 
chafcoal and oil. The happy thought of adding to this some 
ground glass and fluor spar renders a single fusion sufficient 
to reduce a native ore, instead of requiring several fusions 
and much trouble in preparing a protoxide from the carbon- 
ate. 

Metallic manganese has somewhat the appearance of cast 
iron. It is hard enough to scratch steel and cuts glass like 
a diamond. It has the effect of rendering steel itself harder 
and better. In the Bessemer process, manganese is intro 
duced into the converter in the form of spiegeleisen. This 
property of its hardness will, no doubt, render it very valu- 
able in the preparation of alloys. In its pure state, we can- 
not expect to use it extensively, owing to its oxidizing so 
readily that specimens of it require to be kept in closely 
stopped bottles or under naphtha. It decomposes water like 
sodium, but less rapidly, and does not reduce metallic salts 
like the last named metal. 

It is only fusible in the strongest heat of the blast furnace, 
and this refractory property is communicated to its alloys. 
When heated, it shows a play of colors at different tempera- 
tures, like steel, and is covered with a brown film of oxide. 
It is about as heavy as iron, for which it would be mistaken 
by the careless observer, but the difference would be easily 
detected on applying a magnet, by which it is but slightly 
attracted, if at all. The truth is we know very little about 
the properties of manganese, as it has never been prepared 
pure in large quantity. Manganese and copper afford an al- 
loy very similar to German silver. 



feet per hour. The gas is allowed to burn against soapstone 
plates, on which the carbon is deposited in the form of soot. 
By a very neat mechanical arrangement, the soot is scraped 
off and deposited in large tin boxes about three feet long, 
and a foot and a half wide, and a foot and a half deep ; 
scrapers are passed along the soapstone plates every twenty 
minutes, and the boxes are filled on their fourth passage. 
A large building is now in course of construction, twice the 
size of the present one, and will have in use thirteen hun- 
dred and twenty eight-feet gas burners. The present con- 
sumption of gas amounts to about one twelfth of the whole 
quantity escaping from the well. When the new building 
is completed and the burners put in operation, the total con- 
sumption of gas, by the burners of both buildings, will be 
one fourth of the whole. 

The carbon is used for the manufacture of ink, and these 
works, we believe, are the only ones of the kind in the 
world. 



How a Yankee Boy made a Meteor. 

The Springfield Republican tells rather a flighty story of a 
well kept secret, which suggests that some of the modern 
meteors, which are constantly being discovered, may be ac- 
counted for in similar manner. The story goes that a boy, 
well back in 1811, made a kite and attached a lantern to it, 
in which he put a candle and arranged it so that, when the 
candle had burne,d out, it would explode some powder which 
was in the bottom of the lantern. He kept the secret en- 
tirely to himself, and waited for a suitable night, in which to 
raise his kite. The boy got his kite into the air without 
being discovered, for it was so dark that nothing but the 
colored lantern was visible. It, went dancing about in the 
air wildly, attracting much notice, and was looked upon by 
ignorant people as some supernatural omen. The evil 
spirit, as many supposed it, went hobbling around for about 
twenty minutes, and then exploded, blowing the lantern to 
pieces. Next morning all was wonder and excitement, and 
the lad, who had carefully taken in his kite and hidden it after 
the explosion without being found out, had his own fun 
out of the matter. The people of Brattleboro' never had any 
explanation of the mystery until nearly sixty years after- 
ward, when the boy who had become quite an old gentleman 
published the story in a Brattleboro' newspaper. 



Patents in Germany. 

Although the various states of Germany are united in one 
confederation for certain purposes, such as defence, com- 
merce, etc., in relation to patents they are separate, and 
each State has its own patent laws. Some twenty pat. 
ents are required to. cover all the German sta'.es. The 
project of establishing a general patent law has been under 
consideration for some years, and there is now every proba- 
bility of an early reform ; however, there is considerable di- 
versity of opinion on the subject. Some chambers of com- 
merce, notably that of Leipsic, are in favor of the total abo- 
lition of patents : but the majority of competent authorities 
appear to favor the scheme of proposals put forward by the 
Association of German Engineers, of which the following 
are the details : 

1. The patent system of Germany shall be unified and 
centralized : 

2. A patent shall confer upon the inventor or his assigns 
the exclusive right and title in his discovery : 

3. There shall be no preliminary examination: 

4. As regards the novelty and priority of the invention, an 
inquiry shall be instituted only when exceptions have been 
taken and objections made within a definite period ; the in- 
vention shall be made known immediately upon the applica- 
tion for a patent, subject and entitled, however, to provisional 
protection : 

5. A commission composed of judges and experts shall be 
summoned to take cognizance of the objections, and to hear 
all persons interested : 

6. There shall bean appeal to a superior court: 

7. The following shall not be fit subjects for, or capable of, 
being patented, namely : 

a. Purely scientific principles, without any definition or 
description of the mode of application ; 

b. Things prejudicial to public order, and contrary to law 
and propriety: 

8. The duration of the patent is fixed at 15 years : 

9 The patentee shall not be obliged to develope and carry 
out his invention : 

10. The patent, though gratuitous for a certain number of 
years, is thereafter subject to a progressive tax : 

11. The patent shall become void at the end of 15 years, or 
in default of due payment of the imposts : 

12. Foreigners shall be fully entitled to obtain patents in 
the Empire : 

13. The State may appropriate any patent, duly indemni- 
fying the patentee : 

14. Every patentee may work and develope the object of 
his patent throughout Germany in whatever way he may 
think fit. 

These are liberal propositions, and, if a corresponding law 
is enacted, it will greatly add to the prosperity of Germany. 



Tbe Manufacture of Carbon. 

About a year ago, Mr. Haworth, a gentleman from Boston 
having heard of the burning well at Cumberland, Md., 
tested the quality of the gas, and was satisfied that he could 
put into operation a scheme or plan of his own for the man- 
ufacture of carbon from the gas. Accordingly, the well was 
leased or purchased by Mr. Haworth and others, known as 
Lamb and Co. , and a patent obtained for the manufacture of 
carbon, according to the plan of Mr. Haworth. A building 
was constructed and the manufacture of carbon commenced 
about six months ago. There are now in operation six hun- 
dred and sixty burners, each burner consuming eight cubic 



A. Conflict with a Wheelbarrow. 

The following must have emanated from a person who had 
experience in tumbling over a wheelbarrow (and who has 
not?) to have enabled him to so graphically describe the 
sensation : 

If you have occasion to use a wheelbarrow, leave it, when 
you are through with it, in front of the house with the 
handles toward the door. A wheelbarrow is the most com- 
plicated thing to fall over, on the face of the earth. A man 
will fall over one when he would never think of falling over 
anything else. He never knows when he has got through 
failing over it, either, for it will tangle his legs and arms, 
turn over with him and rear up in front of him, and, just as 
he pauses in his profanity to congratulate himself, it takes a 
new turn and scoops more skin off him, and he commences 
to evolute anew, and bump himself on fresh places. A man 
. never ceases to fall over a wheelbarrow until it turns com- 
pletely on its back, or brings up against something it cannot 
upset. It is the most inoffensive looking object there is, 
but it is more dangerous than a locomotive, and no man is 
secure with one unlesB he has a tight hold of its handles, 
and is sitting down on something. A wheelbarrow has its 
uses, without doubt, but in its leisure.moments it is the great 
blighting curse on true dignity. 

m I+. i , 

As the buckwheat season is upon us, the following sub- 
stitute for greasing the griddle is recommended : Take a tur- 
nip, cut in half, rub the griddle with the inner side, and, it is 
said that, the cakes will come off nice and smoothly, and the 
housekeeper will be rid of the disagreeable odor of burniri*g- 
fat. 



There will be an Exhibition of Science and Art in Bom- 
bay, in Fobruary, 1873 



©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



22 



^tmtifk %mmau. 



[January ii, 1873. 



THE LYONS EXPOSITION ELEVATED RAILWAY. 
During the recent Exposition in the Park of the Golden 
Head, in Lyons, France, the curiously constructed elevated 
railway, shown in our illustration, was built to convey visi- 
tors from the Bridge of Morand to the gate of the Park. The 
mode of propulsion, it will be noticed, is very nearly the same 
as that first introduced in the Greenwich street railway, in 
this city. It consists simply of endless wire rope passing 
over drums at either extremity of the route, and actuated by 
powerful engines. The car is supported on trucka running 
on the single upper track, and of course can be readily dis- 
connected from or attached to the constantly moving rope 
whenever it is required to arrest or resume its motion. 



regions, depending on the use of iron, would receive a fresh 
impulse. 

We herewith present an illustration of a blast furnace, in- 
vented by Mr. Khern, of Austria, which is said to fulfil all 
requirements. It is not stated where it is in operation, but 
should it prove successful, it cannot fail to be of great ser- 
vice to the manufacturer. 

The following is a translation from a late number of the 
lUustrirteGewerbezcitung, relating to this furnace : "Assum- 
ing that, in the higher zones above the belly, no alteration of 
the ores takes place, but that reduction and carbonization 
only commence in the latter, Mr. Khern accomplishes the 
preparation of the materials outside of the furnace, and this 



and carbonization of the ore, but states that coked lignite 
was used in Austria in the quantity of one third of the 
charge of charcoal with complete success. 



The Marlnonl Press, 

At the London Internation Exhibition was exhibited a 
six feeder Marinoni, printing the Echo, which is an improve- 
ment on Hoe's, and prints both sides of the paper at the rate 
of about 10,000 sheets per hour, or 20,000 copies of the news- 
paper, as the Echo is worked in duplicate. In its general 
features, it is similar to Hoe's, but the impression cylinders 
are, of course, doubled to obtain the printing on both sides 
of the sheet. The arrangement of flyers for taking off of 




THE LYONS EXPOSITION ELEVATED RAILWAY. 



This form of railroad, wa learn, worked with satisfactory 
.esults over the short distance it was required to traverse. 
Its safety is plainly apparent, the entire weight of car and 
load being entirely beneath the wheels, so that no accident 
can happen except by the track giving way. The single upper 
rail is strongly made of wood, bolted together with heavy 
bolts and stays ; the lower rail, acting as a guide for the car, 
is similarly built, and also serves as a brace for the upright 
pillars. The car was constructed to accommodate from six- 
teen to twenty people, and made in two sections, the openings 
being, as shown, in the sides. 

«-<•>-* 

IMPROVED BLAST FURNACE. 

The utilization of brown coal or lignite, unmixed with 
other fuel, for the blast furnace, has thus far been an un- 
solved problem, it having been used at most in the quantity 
of one fourth or one fifth of the charge, the re- 
mainder being charcoal or coke. When used in 
larger quantity, it did not produce a sufficiently 
high temperature, and since it crumbles readi- 
ly into fragments, its application for the pro- 
duction of iron has thus far been only a limited 
one. Turner, we believe, first pointed out the 
necessity of smelting under a high pressure, 
with hot blast and a larger addition of lime. 
Mr, A. Eilers, of this city, in a paper read before 
the American Institute of Mining Engineers, 
"On the Metallurgical Value of the Lignites," 
expressed substantially the same ideas. " To 
burn that material in the blast furnace," he said, 
" cylinder blasts are required, and perhaps it 
would also be necessary to close the top of the 
furnaces, in order to smelt under a high press- 
ure, which may be regulated by the damper in 
the flue. The extraordinary results thus ob- 
tained, in producing high temperatures, by Bes- 
semer are too new to require recalling. Nothing 
of this kind has, however, yet been tried in the 
West, but I hope that, during the present year, 
this subject will be thoroughly investigated." 

The subject under consideration is evidently 
one of immense importance to the great West 
and Southwest. It is well known that those dis- 
tricts which abound in valuable iron ores are 
essentially barren, containing but little wood 
except cotton woods and willows ; moreover they 
are devoid of either anthracite or bituminous 
coal. Yet there occur vast beds of lignites or 
brown coal. This coal is mostly of a black color 
and a resinous luBter, and is streaked with brown, 
but is devoid of any wood structure. According 
to Professor Newberry, these lignites underlie 
not less than 50,000 miles in the Great Basin and 
along both flanks of the Rocky Mountains. At 
present a great deal of this fuel is being used on the locomo- 
tives of the Union Pacific and Central Bailway companies, 
where no high temperature is required ; but the use in blast 
furnaces, for the reasons referred to, is now virtually given 
up. If a method was discovered, or a furnace invented, by 
which this fuel could be directly used, namely, without 
the employment of costly gas generators, it would be of the 
utmost importance, for the railroad companies could then 
produce their own rails, and the various industries of those 



does away with two thirds of its whole hight. The same is 
only seventeen feet high, or as high as the belly, the ascend- 
ing gases being used in this particular apparatus to char the 
lignites, to roast the ores, and to heat the blast, a is a cyl- 
inder for the reception of the ore and the prepared fuel ; 6 
is another cylinder which, when lifted by means of the rods, 
c, attached to levers, allows the charge to drop over the 
cone, d, into the furnace, e is a reservoir for the gases ; 
these pass through / to the ovens for carbonizing, to the 
roasting furnaces and the apparatus for heating the blast, 
to be conveyed to the stack, E. The ovens for carbonizing 
are built in such a manner that the gases, issuing from the 
furnace, pass through two channels divided by a partition, 
above which there are, in two rows, eighteen or twenty box- 
es, made of cast iron, of a capacity of one tun each. They 
are provided with covers, and serve for the reception of the 




oourse dispenses with labor, but six men are necessary t° 
lay on the sheets. Each sheet represents, as we have said, 
two papers, which are divided by a rotating circular knife in 
the middle line of the machine, cutting the paper in the di- 
rection of its travel. Both this machine and the "Walter" 
exhibit a very great advance in fast working printing ma- 
chines, but while the principle of the former has probably 
been brought as near to perfection as possible, the application 
of that of the latter is only in its infancy as regards the pro- 
duction of vast numbers of newspapers in an incredibly short 
space of time. 

. •»-•«.-«. . 

Twenty Dollar Tea. 
The greatest dainty that the palate of a Chinese craves is 
fan chow, the flower of tea. A San Francisco Chronicle man 
had the opportunity, a few days ago, to sip the imperial tea 
bloom, the priceless beverage of celestial extrav- 
agance. Learning that the enterprising firm of 
Castle Brothers, 213 and 215 Front street, had 
samples of a very rare tea, he visited the count- 
ing room of that firm, was shown the samples, 
and directed to Tuck Chong & Co., Chinese 
wholesale merchants, at 739 Sacramento street, 
for information. Tuck Chong, an urbane Chi- 
nese, received the reporter kindly, listened to his 
requesi to be shown the imperial leaf, and brought 
in the priceless luxury in a small and highly or- 
namental box of sandal wood. The slide lid 
was pulled out, and six alternate layers of per- 
fumed rice paper and silk were carefully lift- 
ed. 

Beneath all this covering was a gilded square 
piece of sandal wood. This also was lifted, and 
the tea blossom was displayed. Boiled in balls, 
twisted into tiny, flame-shaped rolls an inch 
long, twisted very small, tied in little bunches, 
like cigarettes, at one end and whipped into 
shreds at the other, was the tea flower, packed 
in loose petals of its own kind, to preserve its 
fragrance. 

" This," said Tuck Chong, " is a tea that only 
mandarins of highest rank ever get a chance to 
drink in China. It is grown on the plantation of 
a very rich mandarin, in the province of Foo 
Chow, and can only be gotten from him or his 
agent in Pekin. There was once a law forbid- 
ding its export, but even an American can now 
buy and drink it. It costs $10 50 in China. My 
brother brought back a few pounds on his last 
visit to China. I have none for sale, but it could 
not be sold in San Francisco for less than $20 a 
pound." 



KHERNS BLAST FURNACE FOR THE TJSE OF LIGNITE, 
fuel. The bottoms, as well as the sides, are exposed to the 



gases, and pipes convey the generated tar vapors into con- 
densers. Such a blast furnace, with the other furnaces 
mentioned, is said to cost $46,500, gold, and it is stated that 
100 pounds of white pig iron may be produced by it for $1 "07, 
gold, which would make $23 96 for the long tun of 2,240 
pounds. 

In conclusion, we would remark that Mr. Brunner finds 
the hight of the furnace too low for the complete reduction 



Flexible Stone. — We are iudebted to Mr. 
Samuel J. Blume, of Nazareth, Pa. , for a specimen of itacol- 
umite, or flexible stone, a curious mineral, of which he is in 
possession of seyeral samples obtained by him in Stokes Co., 
N. C. In Brazil and the Ural mountains, diamonds have 
been found in the itacolumite rocks ; but, in general, the dia- 
monds are obtained from the soil in the vicinity of the above 
rocks. 

m » #« m — , — 

A spring of naphtha has been discovered at Caserta, Naples, 



©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January ii, 1873.] 



JF txmtiih %mtxxm. 



23 



THE GREAT LAXEY WATEB WHEEL. 

Probably the largest water wheel in the world is that re- 
presented in our illustration. It is located at Laxey.Isle of 
Man, in which village are extensive mines which have now 
been worked for several centuries, and which are noted for 
their richness in copper, lead, and silver ores. The deepest 
workings extend 1,380 feet below the surf ace, and are drained 
ichiefly by the powerful pumps operated by this immense 
motor. 

The wheel was erected by Mr. 
Casement, a Manx engineer. 
It is known as the " Lady Isa- 
bella," after the wife of a for- 
mer governor of the island, 
:and was started September 
:27, 1854. It is of about 200 
horse power, and can pump 
250 gallons of water per min- 
ute from a depth of 400yards. 
Its diameter is 72 feet 6 incli- 
nes ; circumference 217 feet 6 
inches. Its breadth is 6 feet, 
and it has a crank stroke of 
10 feet. The water for driv- 
ing it is brought from a reser- 
voir on a neighboring hill. 
The wheel and its fittings are, 
;as represented in our engrav- 
ing, supported on an elegant 
structure of iron and masonry 
formed in open galleries. 

The only water wheel ap- 
proaching the one above de- 
scribed in magnitude, in the 
United States, of which we 
.are at present aware, is that 
which supplies power to the 
Burden Iron Works, in Troy, 
N. Y. This is an overshot 
wheel; 50 feet in diameter and 
22 feet in breadth. 



The operations of gumming and folding are accomplished by 
ingenious mechanism which could not be explained without 
elaborate drawings. Several machines were exhibited for ef- 
fecting these operations, one of which lifts each envelope 
from the heap by a pneumatic plunger, and hands it over to 
the gumming mechanism. The lip of the envelope is some- 
times embossed by the cutters at the same operation as the 
cutting, but special embossing is performed by a separate 
machine, as are also the black borders »nd the folding. As 



A Suggestion for Electro- 
platers. 

We would throw out a sug- 
gestion, says the Building 

News, which has occurred to 

us in connection with electro 

gilding, namely, we cannot 

see why a pattern or ornament 

(similar in character to the 

old style called damascening) 

could not be either printed or 

penciled upon the articles to 

be plated, with a varnish or 

medium which would prevent 

the deposit of the electro sil- 
ver or gold upon the parts 

which it covers, and which 

would be easily removed after 

the article has been electro 

gilt. If this could be done a 

wide field would be opened up 

for ita application, as, for in- 
stance, supposing an article 

was first plated with silver, 

and then a damascene pattern 

was put on the silver in the 

manner above described, and 

then the parts left uncovered 

were plated with gold, we 

should have a work of art of 

a very high class, at a compar- 
atively low cost, the pattern 

being gold upon silver, or vice 

versa. As to the practicabili- 
ty of the operation, we have 

no manner of doubt what- 
ever, and, therefore, commend 
the hint to those whom it may 
concern. 

■ i». m 

Envelope making. 
At the recent International Exhibition in London, a series 
of machines were exhibited by Messrs. Dickenson, manufac- 
turing envelopes from the roll of paper to the finished article, 
gummed and counted into packets. In this series the web, 
as the roll of paper is called, is drawn along by suitable roll- 
ers and cut into sheets, one of the chief features of the ma- 
chine being the method of varying the rate of advance of the 
web, or, in other words, the size of the sheets. On the roll 
shaft and that of the knife are deeply flanged pulleys, the 
ringa of which are in segments ; the radial arms carrying 
these segments are operated on by wedges attached to a collar 
which can be slid along the shaft, so that, when the wedges 
are brought into play, and to just the extent to which they 
are advanced or withdrawn, the pulley is increased or de- 
creased in diameter. The circumferential proportions of 
these pulleys are preserved by an ingenious piece of mechan- 
ism, so that the driving belt in connection with them is 
always at the same tension. When the sheets are cut to size 
they are passed through milling rolls, where they are 
glazed, and are then piled to about an inch in thickness 
under a shaping press consisting of a series of punches, 
which cut the heaps into the shape of an opened envelope. 




THE GREAT LAXEY WATER WHEEL. 

may be supposed, these machines, from their complicated 
construction, are expensive, but they are models of mechani- 
cal ingenuity. Bookf olding and newspaper folding machines 
were also exhibited, but these do not afford so remarkable a 

saving of iabor and time as to insure their general adoption. 
■ ♦*».-• 

To the New York and New Haven and Hartford Railroad 
Company is accredited the following brilliant plan for keep- 
ing switchmen awake : It is proposed to have the lever of 
the switch in a sentry box, so arranged that when the switch 
is open the door is shut and locked, and can only be opened 
by closing the switch. If a train comes along while the 
switch is open, it is sure to smash the sentry box first, and 
the switchman can only save his life by attending to his busi- 
ness. He is not likely to sleep much when trains are due on 

his track. 

•»-«♦ » m 

Turning the Tables. — An Irish gentleman, of a me- 
chanical turn, took off his gas meter to repair it himself, and 
put it on again upside down, so that at the end of the quar- 
ter it was proved that the gas company owed him £3 7s. 6d. ! 
■.,».-► 

Pittsburgh has eleven blast furnaces in operation. At 
present prices of iron the proprietors of these furnaces must 
be a cheerful class of persons. 



Continuous Expansion Engines. 

At a recent meeting of the London Association of Foremen 
Engineers, Mr. Nicholson referred to the continuous expan- 
sion engine, made by Mr. John Stewart, Blackwall Iron 
Works, which, he stated, is the only engine on the compound 
principle now in the market as a competitor to the Woolf 
machine. The steam is worked in a different channel from 
any other engine. It is cut off at about half stroke on the 
small piston. At the time the small piston passes the cellu- 
lar ports in the sides of the 
small cylinder, the two pis- 
tons begin to share the steam 
between them. At the same 
time they begin to expand the 
steam, when the small piston 
has finished its up or down 
stroke. The large piston con- 
tinues to expand the steam 
until nearly at the end of its 
stroke, which causes it to be, 
as its name indicates, really 
a continuous expansion engine. 
The steam is a less time ex- 
posed to the atmosphere than 
in the ordinary compound en- 
gine ; it gives out a steady mo- 
tion, and each cylinder can be: 
worked separately at pleasure, 
which is a great consideration 
in case of a break down. 

This engine is applicable to 
all purposes, and more partic- 
ularly where a steady motion 
is required, such as flour or 
cotton mills. It is nearly as 
economical when working non- 
condensing — commonly called 
high pressure — as the ordinary 
condensing engine, and is well 
adapted for American rivers. 
The steam could always be 
worked to within one pound of 
the atmosphere, and no more 
noise would be heard than, 
from a condensing engine. 

The difference between the 
continuous expansion engine 
and the ordinary compound 
engine is that, in the latter 
the steam has to expand in 
the first cylinder until nearly 
tho end of the stroke : then 
the steam passes to the second 
cylinder. If cut off at half 
stroke, the steam would then 
be half of the boiler pressure, 
before it entered into the aper- 
tures prepared to receive the 
steam previous to acting on 
the second piston. In the 
continuous expansion engine 
(the steam going through a 
different channel, and as soon 
as the piston passes the cellu- 
lar ports in the side of the first 
cylinder, the two pistons shar- 
ing the steam between them), 
it is therefore absolutely neces- 
sary to proportion the engine 
with minimum ports and not, 
to throttle, in order to get the 
maximum power. That is the, 
reason why the hollow valve, 
or traveling steam chest is in- 
troduced between the two cyl- 
inders, to receive the steam 
from the first and pass it to 
the second. The steam does 
not enter the chest ; it passes, 
through the hollow valve, 
which is nothing more than 
the continuing' of the steam ports from the one cylinder tp 
the other. Both pistons are running in the same direction, 
and the pressure of the steam on the large piston is just in: 
proportion to the space that is filled ; the smaller the spaces, 
the greater the pressure, that is, minimum spaces and maxi- 
mum power. In the compound or, rather, Woolf system of 
working, the greater the pressure on the large piston, the, 
greater the resistance on the small piston. Not so in the 
continuous expansion engine. Instead of a resistance, there 
is a great assistance by a vacuum being formed in the first 
cylinder as well as the second. Very long stroked engines, 
working from 12 to 14 strokes per minute, would not give 
such good results by being connected to the condenser ; but 
engines running from 60 to 100 strokes do not allow time 
enough for the cooling to take place in the cylinder ; therefore 
the continuous expansion engine will give out considerably 
more power with the same area than any other compound en- 
gine yet discovered. 



A correspondent, J. W., of 111., in writing on the crim- 
inal negligence of large corporations, states that the super- 
intendent of a railroad in his State has been heard to say, 
when applied to for employment : " Wait a while ; there will 
be a vacancy soon. We kill or cripnle a man every day." 



©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



24 



^tmtiik %mmm. 



[January ii, 1873. 



THE FBOGBESS 07 CHEMISTEY IN 1872. 
The year that has just closed has not introduced to us any 
startling discovery, or produced an invention which is likely 
to work a revolution in any art ; but it has added its fair 
share to the general stock of knowledge, and its contribu- 
tions may be said to compare favorably with those of times 
past. It may be well to review some of the most conspicu- 
ous chemical events of the old year, in order to make a fair 
beginning on the new. The continuous and economical 
manufacture of chlorine gas, directly from hydrochloric acid 
without the intervention of manganese dioxide, as proposed 
by Deacon, hasbeen improved and perfected during the year, 
and may be set down as one of the most important contribu- 
tions to chemical technology of recent times. A heated mix- 
ture of atmospheric air and hydrochloric acid gas is made to 
pass through tubes filled with fragments of brick saturated 
with a solution of sulphate of copper, or is driven through a 
reverberatory furnace, the floor of which is covered with \ 
bricks filled with a copper salt, and at a temperature of 370° 
to 400° C. The hydrochloric acid is thus decomposed and 
chlorine gas is liberated. If the heat be increased to 425° 
C. considerable chloride of copper is volatilized and there is a 
considerable loss of the reducing material. The importance 
of an invention of this character can readily be appreciated 
by all who are familiar with the enormous consumption of 
chlorine in England and this country. Hydrochloric acid 
may be said to be an incidental product in England, and it 
has therefore long been employed in the production of chlo- 
rine by the manganese process. To enable the manufacturer 
of bleaching powders to dispense with manganese and sub- 
stitute a continuous copper method constitutes the chief 
merit of Deacon's invention. 

The artificial production of alizarine from coal tar, which 
merely dawned upon us a year or two since, has, during the 
past year, been brought up to the standard of a commercial 
success. The reasoning by which the inventors of artificial 
alizarine arrived at their results is one of the best illustra- 
tions of the value of applying real scientific training, to the 
solution of technical problems. Two chemical manufactu- 
rers in Germany, Messrs. Graebe and Liebermann, in their 
study of a class of bodies called quinones, came to the con- 
clusion that alizarine was one of them, and to prove this, 
they passed the vapor of natural alizarine obtained from 
madder over heated zinc dust, and obtained a product which 
proved to be in every way identical with anthracene. Hav- 
ing made anthracene from alizarine, the next step was to re- 
verse the process and produce alizarine from anthracene ; 
this they were finally enabled to do in a circuitous manner, 
but sufficiently economically for commercial purposes. Arti- 
ficial alizarine is now largely made and employed as a sub- 
stitute for the natural Turkey red of the madder root. At- 
tention has consequently been called to anthracene, which, 
occurring in small quantities among the products of coal tar 
distillation, has not been hitherto much studied or appreci- 
ated. The demand for it as a source of color has invited the 
study and invention of chemists, and during the past year, 
Messrs. Fenner and Versmann have discovered more eco- 
nomical methods of preparing it from pitch as well as tar, and 
there is every indication that they may be able to separate 
it commercially from the native asphaltum of Trinidad. 
Thus anthracene, which few persons have ever seen or heard 
of, bids fair to become an article of large manufacture for 
use in the production of colors. There are so many articles 
of valuo which are now made from coal tar that it is safe to 
predict that, if it were not incidentally produced in the man- 
ufacture of illuminating gas, we should soon have works 
started to give us the tar required in numerous industries. 
It is not many years since the tar of the New Tork gas houses 
was allowed to run away into the North river. It would cer- 
tainly be curious to see works created to manufacture it, 
while the gas was allowed to escape into the air. Such a re- 
versing of the ancient order of things is not impossible, how- 
ever improbable it may seem. At the present time, there 
are fifty-six distinct products resulting from the distillation 
of coal. Only a few of these are of direct practical value, a 
majority of them being less known than was anthracene a 
year ago. Every year witnesses the picking up and utiliz- 
ing of one or more of these compounds ; and if chemists did 
not continually add to the number, we might hope before 
many years have passed to get through the entire list. 

There is another product of Nature which has received 
great attention during the past year, and that is cellulose. 
The chemical properties of cellulose have long been under- 
stood, and its use in many arts dates back to remote antiqui- 
ty ; but nevertheless it has been subjected to close scrutiny in 
late years, and its applications have been proportionately ex- 
tended. We have paper, gun cotton and clothing made from 
cellulose ; and during the past year, we find it taking the 
place of parchment and membrane for many purposes ; and, 
as a good solvent has been found for it, it is made into strong 
bands to be employed as substitutes for leather, and is ap- 
plied to the manufacture of roofing, gas pipes, water conduc- 
tors, safety fuses, hats and boots ; and the best photographic 
collodion is now made from precipitated cellulose. These 
are only the beginning of the purposes to which it is safe to 
predict that dellulose will some day be applied. 

The chemistry of fermentation has been the sub ject of con- 
siderable controversy during the year, and Pasteur, the 
champion of the germ theory, has invented a new process 
for brewing beer, which is attracting much notice in this 
country and Europe. We gave a full description of it a short 
time since. According to Pasteur's process, the fermentation 
is accomplished with the exclusion of the air, and thus the 
deterioration due to the absorption of oxygen is avoided. It 
remains to be seen whether the French. " revenge beer" will 
eventually drive the German lager from the market. 



In the economical use of furnace slags, there has been 
much improvement during the year. The unsightly accu- 
mulations about blast furnaces bid fair to disappear ; and by 
degrees, we shall see the slags worked up very much as the 
waste tar has been, after many years of study. The slags 
are useful for glass, for cements, for fluxes, for artificial 
stone, for alum, for fillings, and for the production of chem- 
ical salts. Many German furnaces now sell them for a 
moderate sum, which will doubtless be increased as new 
uses are discovered. The progress in this direction during 
the past year is one of the most satisfactory we have to record. 

The interest attached to nickel plating has in no way 
flagged ; but, on the contrary, the processes have been greatly 
improved and the application of the art has been extended 
in all directions. One of the most important improvements 
has been that of nickel plating for facing type. The hard- 
ness of nickel makes it very desirable for this purpose. 

In the direction of tanning, we have recorded a few inven- 
tions ; and the attention of chemists to the best methods for 
obtaining concentrated extracts of tannic acid is meeting with 
encouragement. 

The general topic of disinfectants and antiseptics has been 
discussed and experimented upon, but not much valuable 
information has been added to our previous store of knowl- 
edge. The distinction between a disinfectant and an anti- 
septic is now better understood, and as the paths of investi- 
gation are cleared of rubbish, we may anticipate important 
discoveries in this line in the future. 

The cheap production of hydrogen was announced by Du 
Motay, and the oxyhydrogen illumination of the same in- 
ventor still struggles on without finding acceptance among 
gas men. The ozone generators which are in the market 
do not offer this modified oxygen cheap enough to ad- 
mit of its use as a bleaching agent. But ozone is still 
claiming a large share of attention. Houzeau quite recently 
invented an ozonizer, described in these columns last sum- 
mer, similar to the one exhibited at the last fair of the .Amer- 
ican Institute. Now comes M. Boillot with a new and im- 
proved form of ozonizer constructed as follows : A tube 13 
inches long and J an inch in diameter is covered externally, 
for 11 inches, with powdered coke attached with gelatin. 
Another tube 11 inches long and | inch in diameter was 
similarly covered with carbon and placed within it, and 
both enclosed in an outer tube of glass. A current of oxy- 
gen was passed between the cylinders, one tube was con- 
nected with one pole of an induction machine and the other 
with the other pole, and a silent discharge kept up for sever- 
al hours. A large quantity of ozone was thus obtained. P. 
Thenard publishes a method of measuring the ozone pro- 
duced by determining the amount of arsenious acid that it is 
able to convert into arsenic acid. This test might, perhaps, 
bj used in comparing the results produced by various forms 
of ozone generators. The peroxide of hydrogen, which is 
also a powerful oxidizer and is likely to be of great use if 
any easy and cheap method of preparation can be discovered, 
does not convert arsenious into arsenic acid, and hence there 
is a readily noticed distinction between them. 

H. Struve has noticed that, when freshly precipitated car- 
bonate of barium is exposed to a low red heat, a small quan- 
tity of peroxide of barium is formed, which, on being treated 
with water and carbonic acid, forms peroxide of hydrogen. 

In the manufacture of aniline dyes, we are glad to notice 
that, although it is still impossible to produce aniline red on 
a large scale without arsenic, this disadvantage is partially 
overcome by preparing some of the colors directly, which 
can be accomplished without arsenic, instead jf making them 
from the aniline red which seems necessarily to contain arse- 
nic. W. F. Gintle has found cheap aniline dyes adulterated 
with sugar, which he detects with a lens, the color and 
shape of the crystal being sufficient to distinguish them. 

Under the general head of sugars, we find Casamajor recom- 
mending the use of subacetate of lead in place of bone black 
for obtaining colorless solutions to be used for polarimetric 
analysis. The manufacture of starch sugar, free from gum, 
for the preparation of spirit coloring, is accomplished in the 
usual manner, boiling with sulphuric acid ; but the boiling 
Is continued 5 to 8 hours after the liquid has ceased to show 
starch reactions with iodine, or till a portion of the liquid re- 
mains clear when mixed with one sixth volume of 96 per 
cent alcohol. For beer and liquors not stronger than 30 to 
50 per cent, commercial starch sugar will answer. It is first 
heated until it begins to burn, and one fiftieth its weight of 
carbonate of ammonia stirred in. 

Bone black ignited in a current of hydrogen possesses equal 
decolorizing power with the ordinary charcoal, so that this 
power cannot be due to condensed oxygen in the pores. 

Another new anaesthetic has been discovered, to which 
Romensky gives the name of trichlor-hydrin, C 3 H 5 C1 3 . It 
occupies an intermediate place between chloroform and 
chloral, as it can be either inhaled or given by the stomach. 
Its action when inhaled is slower than that of chloroform, 
and given in the stomach, it produces gastro-intestinal irrita- 
tion. 

Carefully conducted experiments with phenol (carbolic acid) 
continue to sustain its well merited rank of queen of the 
disinfectants. Its physiological actions were found to be 
similar to those of strychnin. 

The crude ammonia salts resulting from the purification 
of coal gas are frequently found to contain sulphocyanates 
which render them unfit for manure. In some cases, the 
amount of sulphocyanate of ammonia present was sufficient 
to destrop the crops where it was applied. 

M. Gorceix has directed his attention to the gases given 
off by Vesuvius and other volcanoes. Analyses show that 
the composition varies daily, most of it being carbonic acid 
mixed with a Httle sulphuretted hydrogen. 



The phosphorus in iron ores, which is highly injurious, 
may not only be removed so as to render the iron fit to smelt 
for pig iron, but can 'itself be utilized, according to Jacobi, 
by treating the ore with a solution of sulphurous acid. The 
insoluble basic phosphates are converted into soluble acid 
phosphates, which are precipitated by lime, and used for 
fertilizing or other purposes. 

The experiments of Weiske-Proskau and Wildt have con- 
tradicted the former supposition that considerable quantities 
of earthy phosphates mixed with the food were deposited in 
the bones. 

Transparent stereoscopic pictures can now be made on well 
sized albuminized paper, sensitized as usual, but laid fpr 
exposure with the side not made sensitive and not albumin- 
ized on the negative. Print rather strongly and tone as 
usual, the tone being judged of by the transparency. 

Several new methods for concentrating sulphuric acid have 
been proposed. Carlier recommends passing steam of three 
atmospheres pressure through leaden worms lying at the 
bottom of wooden tubes lined with lead inside, and filled 
with acid of sp. gr. 1 '5 which, as soon as its gravity has 
risen to 1 -7, is transferred into another wooden tank of the 
same kind. 

We have thus given a few of the topics of interest that 
have attracted more than usual notice during the year, and 
the reader will see that our statement made at the outset, 
that, while no startling discovery has been made, the pro- 
gress in past discoveries has been important and useful, is 
justified. 



A GIGANTIC FIBE ENGINE. 

The city of New York, occupying as it does the narrow 
tongue of land washed on one side by the Hudson and on 
the other by the East river, may be said to stand in the very 
midst of water ; but, strange to say, this most abundant 
supply is rarely made use of for the extinguishment of fires. 
We fill our fire engines with water brought in pipes from a 
lake distant some forty miles from the city — a source which 
is always liable to be cut off or diminished at the moment of 
greatest necessity. 

The idea of employing stationary engines located near the 
rivers, for the purpose of sending strong streams of salt 
water through the city, for use in the event of fire, has been 
frequently suggested by prominent engineers, but has never 
been carried out. We are pleased to notice, however, that 
an experimental beginning is about to be made, the success 
of which may have an important influence in the improve- 
ment of our fire department. 

Messrs. A. S. Cameron & Co. , the well known steam pump 
builders, in East 23d street, this city, have lately obtained 
permission from the municipal authorities to lay a six inch 
water pipe from their factory to the river, for the purpose of 
drawing salt water, for use in case of fire. They are placing 
a large Special steam pump in their works, fitted with dig- 
charge pipes, and have so arranged them as to command not 
only their own building, but also those adjacent, including 
the Corporation yard. The pump is intended exclusively for 
fire purposes, and will be of the capacity of about three first 
class city fire engines. This great pump will be supplied 
with water from the river as stated. 

The work is being done entirely at the expense of Messrs. 
Cameron, and it will furnish an example of the availability 
and advantage of salt water for protection against fire in this 
city. The extensive business of Messrs. Cameron requires 
them to have a pressure of steam, and watchmen on hand at 
all times, so that the great pump can be put in operation at 
a moment's notice. 



Steam versus Fire. 

The following facts, clipped from the Boston Advertiser, 
are from the report made to an insurance company over 
twenty years ago, on the application of steam to the extin- 
guishment of fires. Steam possesses decided advantages 
over water, as it is not so liable to injure goods or furniture, 
while it can penetrate to places which a stream could not be 
made to reach. 

The experiments were made in a large mill, through which 
suitable pipes and connections had been laid, communicating 
with the different rooms. A box of waste cotton was igni- 
ted in the second story, making a fierce blaze. Steam was 
turned on, filling first the upper stories and finally reaching 
and completely extinguishing the blaze. After trying this 
experiment with dry cotton several times, lamps were light- 
ed and placed in various positions on the stairs and floor, 
with the wicks very high, producing strong flames. It was 
remarked that each lamp, as the steam reached it, was im- 
mediately put out. 

Steam, it was shown, can be let into any and every part of 
the mill in much less time than water could be under the 
best arranged water mills. In case of fire, the steam is at- 
tached to or upon every surface in all positions, and will fol- 
low fire into every recess, hole, or crack. It will, in fact, 
precede the flames, and; covering everything in its course 
with water, prevent their spread. 



The new scheme for a network of tramways, proposed by 
an American company for the city of Berlin and its environs, 
has been sanctioned by the Minister of Public Works, by a 
concession. It comprises an encircling line round the ancient 
enceinte of the town, with various suburban routes branch- 
ing out therefrom, to the number of nine. But, singularly 
enough, not one of these lines is prolonged into the center 
of the city ; and it is considered that, short of their exten- 
sion to a common center in the heart of the city, the full 
benefit of the system can hardly bo realized. 



©1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January ii, 1873.] 



Mwtifit ^mmm. 



25 



SCIENTIFIC AMD PRACTICAL INFORMATION. 



UTILIZATION OP PATTY MATTER FROM THE WASHING 
WATERS OF CLOTH FACTORIES. 

For spinning every 100 lbs. of washed wool, 12 or 14 lbs. 
of oil (mostly olive oil) are required ; and extensive cloth 
manufactories use for fulling 50 or 75 tuns of soap, each, 
yearly. There are, annually, 25,000 tuns of washed wool 
spun in Austria, and almost 3,500 tuns of oil are consumed j 
the oil is valued at two millions and a half florins. This quan- 
tity which, until lately, has been entirely wasted, is again 
separated by fulling with soap. A writer describes a pro- 
cess in operation in Briinn,. near Vienna, for saving this 
waste. It has been in operation for four years, and consists 
of the following manipulations: The soap water is collected 
in a reservoir from which it is pumped into a wooden tub. 
Sulphuric acid of 66° B., diluted with three times its vol- 
ume of water, is then added under constant stirring, until 
the soap is perfectly decomposed. The fatty acids rise to 
the surface and, when cool, are collected, put into bags, and 
are subjected to high pressure in order to separate the water 
as much as possible. After a few hours the bags are emptied, 
and the mass, which in the meanwhile has become consist- 
ent, is formed into cakes, to be molten at a temperature of 
from 350° to 400° Fah. and pressed again, The thus-gained 
product is mostly used for the manufacture of soap, and it 
is estimated that the value of the material thus reclaimed 
amounts in Austria alone to 350,000 florins. 

CHEMISTRY IN THE WORKSHOP. 

H. W. Behse has just published a book, entitled " Die 
Chemie in Her Warkstatt" (Chemistry in the Workshop) which 
we should like to see translated. A review says : " Chemis- 
try, more than any other science, is called upon to shed 
light upon the darkness yet prevailing in many technical 
manipulations, in order that the manufacturer, guided by 
theoretical knowledge, may not only operate with more cer- 
tainty, but may also obviate failures with more reliance. 
The author has solved this problem in the most meritorious 
manner. " 

REFINING GOLD BY CHLORINE GAS. 
The application of chlorine to the refining of gold, as 
some of our readers may be aware, consists in passing a 
current of chlorine through the molten metal covered with 
borax. In a few minutes the silver present is converted in- 
to chloride, which floats on the surface, while the chlorides 
of lead, copper, antimony, and arsenic escape. The fine- 
ness of the gold produced in this way varies from 991 to 997 
in 1,000 parts ; the few remaining thousandth parts of the pro- 
duct are silver, a quantity which is less than that resulting 
from any of the previously known processes. B. Dumas in- 
forms us that in the Mint in London as much as 750,000 kilo- 
grammes of gold have been refined and toughened by the pro- 
cess, one kilogramme being 2-2046 lbs. avoirdupois. The ap- 
paratus is in use for only three days per month, and the cost of 
the chlorine gas is only from four to five francs for refining 
5J)00 kilogrammes of the gold. In order to refine 40 kilo- 
grammes, a current of the gas for five minutes' time is suf- 
ficient. The silver is found in the borax covering the gold. 

NEW PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING GOLD AND SILVER FROM 
COPPER PYRITES. 

This method, invented by F. Claudet, is based upon the in- 
solubility of the iodides of gold and silver. After the py- 
rites have been desulphurized by the addition of salt, they 
are placed in a barrel with a false bottom and lixiviated with 
acidulated water. The wash water consists of sulphate of 
soda, chloride of copper, and some chloride of silver. From 
this liquor the copper may be precipitated in a metallic state 
by means of sheet iron or iron scraps ; but if the noble met- 
als are to be separated, the waters from the three first ex- 
tractions are collected, and the requisite quantity of iodide 
of potassium in solution is added to them. After having 
been left undisturbed for twenty-four hours, the clear liquor 
is drawn off, the vessel is then filled again, and iodide of po- 
tassium is added (in short, the operation is repeated) until a 
sufficiently large quantity of precipitate has collected. This 
contains sulphate of lead and copper salts, besides the 
iodides of gold and silver. The salts of copper are washed 
out, whereupon the residue is mixed with zinc, in a finely 
divided form, which combines with the iodine. Hence the re- 
sult is a mixture of gold, silver, lead, and some oxide of 
zinc, from which it is easy to separate the noble metals. 
Claudet produced in 1871, by this process, from 16,300 tuns 
of desulphurized pyrites, 333 '242 kilogrammes silver, and 
3-172 kilogrammes gold, at a net profit of $16,160. 

DYEING SHODDY WOOL BROWN. 

The advantage of the process here described consists in 
that the operation can be carried out in one vat. One hun- 
dred lbs. wool are left for half an hour in a boiling bath con- 
taining 30 lbs. yellow wood, 3 lbs. alum, 2 lbs. crystals of 
tartar, and 1 lb. sulphate of copper. After that time, one 
pound chromate of potash and three quarters of a pound of 
a solution of rosain in hydrochloric acid are added to the 
bath, which is now kept gently boiling. By the addition of 
turmeric, various shades may be obtained. Logwood will 
darken them, 6 lbs. of logwood and 10 lbs. of turmeric be- 
ing recommended for 100 lbs. wool. The term rosain applies 
to a waste product obtained in the manufacture of aniline 
red. 

DYEING SHODDY BLUE. 

In this method, half woolen threads are destroyed by mu- 
riatic acid ; the acid is then neutralized by chalk, and the 
fabric is well washed and dyed. One hundred pounds re- 
quire one pound of chromate of potash, one pound sulphate 



of copper, five pounds alum, one pound crystals of tartar, and 
one pound oil of vitriol, which are dissolved in the vat, the 
goods being left in the boiling liquor for half an hour. The 
goods are then boiled in a fresh bath containing 25 lbs. log- 
wood, to which half a pound of " shoddy " carmine and a 
quarter of a pound of rosain are added, the liquor being left 
boiling for another half hour. The so-called shoddy car- 
mine is prepared by dissolving in hot water twelve pounds 
alum, nine pounds indigo carmine, and three pounds of sol- 
uble aniline blue, and stirring until cool. This carmine is 
very suitable for dyeing ordinary wool. 

DETERMINATION OF IRON IN BLAST FURNACE SLAGS. 

This method is recommended as being free from the objec- 
tions belonging to the generally known systems of analysis. 
The finely pulverized slag is mixed in a platinum crucible with 
three or four times its quantity of fluoride of ammonium. 
The crucible is first heated in the water bath under gradual 
addition of sulphuric acid ; and when the boiling has ceased, 
it is heated in the sand bath until the acid commences to 
evaporate. Upon cooling, water is added ; the insoluble re- 
sidue is put on a filter and washed out, until the washing 
water ceases to indicate iron. It is now heated in a balloon 
with some zinc, so that the peroxide may be reduced to pro- 
toxide ; and when this is the case, the iron is determined by 
volumetric analysis in the generally known manner. 



RECENT PATENT DECISIONS 



Locking Nuts. 

APPEAL OF PETEB CAMPBELL. 

Leggbtt, Commissioner: 

Applicant fully sets forth his alleged Invention In his claim, which is— 
A nut lockcomposedof aportlon of themetalof the nut, projecting into 
a recess in one of the threads of the bolt, said recess being formed and the 
metal forced into it at one operation. 

It is obvious, upon mere Inspection of this claim, that it does not cover a 
patentable invention. Applicant cannot make such a nut lock as he de- 
scribes so as to be ready for use or sale in the market. His invention, then, 
Is not a device or article that he can offer to the public as complete for their 
use. It is only a process that he presents, which every man must apply 
himself to secure the result contemplated. In other words— every man 
must make his own fastening, upon the plan proposed, every time he wishes 
to employ It. The process merely Is all there is in the case, and that, as 
shown by the reference cited— patent of A. D. Smith, No. 78,899— is old. 
There Is nothing new or patentable In this, application in view of the refer- 
ence, and the decision of the Board Is, therefore, affirmed. 

Ladles' Hoopsklrts. 

APPLICATION OF SAMUEL PEBEBDT FOB EXTENSION OF PATENT NO. 23,197, 
GBANTEDNOVEMBEB 30, 1858. DECIDED NOVEMBEB 27, 1872. 

Extension refused where only live per cent of the net profits to arise 
from the extended term were to go to the inventor, and ninety-live per 
cent to assignees. 

United States Circuit Court— Southern District of 
New York. 

machines for Pegging Shoes. 

GALLAHUE et al V8. BUTTEBFIELD. 

Before Woodruff, Circuit Judge. 

A suit in equity, brought by Alpheus C. Gallabue and Eli Bennet against 
William Butterfleld, for the infringement of certain letters patent on shoe 
pegging machines, granted the complainant, Gallahue, on the following 
dates, respectively, namely, August 16, 1853, and reissued July 6, 1869 ; March 
29, 1859, and reissued June 28, 1869 ; and Ajignst 26, 1862. 

Patent sustained. Decree for plaintiffs granted. 

Keller <k Blake, for complainants. 

G. L. Roberts, for defendant. 

United States Circuit Court—District of Massachusetts. 

SMITH VS. NICHOLS. 
WM. SMITH'S PATENT FOB IMPROVEMENT IN CORDED ELASTIC FABBIOS— IN 
VENTION DISTINGUISHED FBOM MERE SKILL IN CONSTRUCTION. 

A suit in equity under the pa tent involved In the various cases, Smith vx. 
Elliott, same va. Warren et al., etc., tried heretofore, the claim of the 
patent In the present case, however, being modified by a disclaimer filed In 
May, 1872. 

The case was heard by Mr. Justice Clifford, of the Supreme Court, and his 
honor Judge Lowell. 

Upon the whole we feel constrained to agree with the opinion of the 
learned circuit judge of the second circuit, that the old webbing was a fab- 
ric of like kind with the complainant's, and that the Improvement, Impor- 
tant though It Is, must be held to be due to the skill and sagacltywlth which 
the mode of operation, by which that webbing was made, nas been adapted 
and applied by the plaintiff, by the use of better materials and a more care- 
ful weaving, out not by the exercise of the Invention requisite to enable 
him to claim the product as a fabric before unknown. 

Bill of complaint dismissed. 

T. A. Jenckes^ for complainant. 

B. Dean and B. R. Curtis, for defendant. 

m <«■ m 

The Hop Preserving Patenu Case. 
lb the Editor of the ScientijicZAmerican: 

In your Issue of 7th December, I find in extenso the decision of the Acting 
Commissioner in the matter of the interference between the application of 
Benjamin Bates and the patent of Seeger & Boyd. 

Decisions of the Commissioner have not unfrequently contained extra 
judicial opinions derogatory to the validity of existing patents. Whatever 
of evil there may be in this practice is vastly augmented by the greatly 
increased publicity now given by the publication of these decisions in the 
Patent Office Gazette, the Scientific Amebican, and other journals. Extra 
judicial opinions are objectionable at any time, and in this case the strength 
of expression amounts to a grievance. On behalf of my clients, and all 
other honest patentees, I enter my protest. 

The patent, being already granted, is beyond the jurisdiction of the Com- 
missioner. He can say nothing to impair its validity ; but his words may 
encourage infringement and Incite litigation. A patent receives validity 
only through the signature of the Commissioner; its Issue Is his act : and 
for aim to assert that a patent is illegal and fraudulent is to stultify his 
own record. A patent granted iB property. To stigmatize as fraudulent 
that in which a citizen has a vested interest, proclaims to the country that 
the right in that property may be set at nought with Impunity ; but the 
Commissioner has no power to protect such persons as may, lgnorantly 
relying upon official expressions of the Commissioner's opinions, infringe 
that patent. 

In the present instance, the Commissioner characterizes as fraudulent, and 
unworthy to be called invention, a matter which had twice been passed 
upon by the Examiner, and had passed the Examiner of Interferences and 
the Board of Examiners in Chief, without any challenge of this sort. In 
matters of issue, on appeal to the Commissioner, the law makes his judg- 
ment of superior force ; but in matters of pure and gratuitous opinion, des- 
titute of legal force, Buch expressions, when officially made, are, to say the 
least, not in good taste. 

Misconception of Seeger and Boyd's patent has led the Commissioner Into- 
this error of judgment: but It la none the less objectionable on that 
account. A patent is not invalid because no special skill is required to work 
it, or because a child can exercise it, or because there is no evidence of in- 
ventive genius. Simplicity is generally regarded as a merit rather than a 
demerit. A patent is not granted for inventive genius, as many have found 
out,— or for special skill, or for what requires bodily strength; but for 
some new or Improved art or thing wheref rom the public may derive benefit. 

That the thing claimed by Seeger & Boyd is both new and valuable as an 
acquisition to trade, is not questioned Dy the Commissioner ; he should 
have, therefore, confined his decision to the question of priority, which was 
the only iBsue before him. R. D. O. SMITH. 

Washington, D. C, Dgc. 3, 1872. 

————— -»-•••-•. 

NEW BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

Gems of Goldsmith. With Notes, Illustrations, and a 
Sketch of the Author's Life. New York : Samuel E. 
Wells, 389 Broadway. 
An admirably printed edition of " The Traveller," " The Deserted Vil- 
lage," and " The Hermit," with excellent engravings. It will make a most 
acceptable present for the season, and deserves commendation as a beautl 
f ul production of three masterpieces of one of the purest and most elegant 
of English writers. We should like to see a complete edition of the works of 
the talented but erratic Goldsmlth,|publlshed In a style similar to this little 
book. 



Facts for the Ladies.— Mrs. W. Weber, New York, has operated on a 
Wheeler & Wilson I.ock-Stltch Machine twelve years, earning from $2.50 to 
13.00 per day, In private families ; can stitch a dozen linen shirt bosoms and 
five dozen pairs of cuffs in an hour. See the Hew Improvements and Woods' 
Lock-Slltch Kipper. 



Inventions Patented In Emgland by Americans. 

[Compiled from the Commissioner! of Patents' Journal.] 
From October 32 to December 5, 1872, Inclusive. 
Coupling Cabs.— J. C.Morton, Boston, Mass. 
Cutting Glass, etc.— C. W. Lewis, New York city. 
Cutting Habd Substances.— B. C. Tllghman, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Goring fob Boots, etc.— C. Wlnslow, Boston, Mass. 
Gbain Separator.— A. Hunter, E. H. Osbom, Qulncy, El. 
Grinding Machinebt, etc— A. Assman, Linden, N. J. 
Leveb and Screw Press.— g. B. Boomer, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Making Babrows.— W. Barr, Jersey city, N. J. 
Making Bbioks.— I. Gregg, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Making Gas, etc.— T. A. Howland, C. G. McKnig&t, Providence, R. I. 
Making Ibon Tubes, etc.— E. Wheeler, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Making Steel.— T. Brooks, Minerva, Ohio. 
Malleable Cast Iron, etc.— J. M. Roberts, Burlington, N. J. 
Motor for Sewing Machines, etc.— G. W. Manson, New York city. 
Piston Packing.— J. C. Furness, Boston, Mass. 
Printing Machine.— E. L. Ford (of Brooklyn, D.Y.), London, Englan 
Printing, Pressing, etc., Machine.— E.L. Ford, New York city. 
Printing Telegraph.— E. Gray, E. M. Barton, Chicago, 111. 
Pumping Engine.— E. Cope, J. R. Maxwell, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Rail Joint.— J. McL. Staughton, Riverton, Ky. 
Raising Sunken Vessels.— H. F. Knapp, New York city. 
Rook Deill.— A. C. Rand, J. B. Waring, New York city. 
Sewing Machine, etc.— J. L. & D. H. Coles, New York city. 
Sewing Machine.— R. Whitehill, New York city. 
Sheet Metal Cans.— G. H. Chlnnock, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Shoe Pegs.— J. H. Oliver, M.D., Baltimore, Md. 
Shuttle Spool.— T. H. Dodge, Worcester^MasB. 
Spindle Bolster.— C. F. Wilson, J. E. Folk, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Spinning Machinery.— E. Freeman, Norton, Mass. 
Steam Pump.— W. C. Selden, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Stench Trap, etc.— N. Thompson, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Telegraph.— S. F. Van Choate (of Boston, Mass.), London, England. 
Utilizing Hydrocarbons, etc.— P. F. Goodrich, San Francisco, Cal. 
Ventilatob.— S. C.Maine, Boston, Mass. 
Watebing Locomotives.— W. E. Prall, Washington, D. C. 



%mxA %mtxitm mft gmtm iafcmte. 



Under this /leading we shall publish weekly notes Qf some oj the more promi- 
nent home and foreign patents. 



Washing Maohkte.— George Washington Molllneaux, Marble Kill, Mo.— 
The Invention consists of a pair of horizontally reciprocating washing or 
rubbing boards.suspended adjustably from slides upon the cover, with their 
rubbing surfaces on the under Bide, to work on the top of the clothes, which 
rest on a stationary ribbed board, and the Bides of the tub are provided with 
vertical ribs for acting upon the clothes. The rubbing boards are suspended 
from a vertically adjustable cross head, mounted on rods rising up from the 
slides, and held down upon the clothes with the required pressure by fric- 
tion pawls on the cross head, held on the rods by springs. The slides are 
worked by a lever pivoted to the top of the tub between them, so as to work 
them simultaneously In opposite directions. The top of the tub is hinged 
at one end, and held fast at the other end by a yoke, which is readily disen- 
gaged to allow the top to be lifted. The slides and rubbers swing out 
of the tub when the cover 1b raised, to facilitate the adjustment of the 
clothes. 

Washing Machine.— Ira B. Stillman, Almond, N. Y.— This Invention re- 
lates to that class of washing machines In which the washing is performed 
by passing the clothes between a set of rollers held to their work by spring 
power; and it consists in the construction of the pressure spring, wherebj 
a greater range of elasticity is effected than has been gained by springs 
heretofore used, and In the manner of adjusting the Bald spring to the differ 
ent degrees of pressure required. It also consists in a device whereby the 
machine may be readily and securely attached to and conveniently detached 
from the tub or other vessel In connection with which It may be desired to 
be used. 

Blotting, Bulxng and Cutting Implement .—Hugh S. Ball, Spartanburg, 
S. C— This Invention has for its object to furnish an Improved ruler, blotter 
and paper cutter combined, which shall be bo constructed that It may be 
used with as much facility as a ruler, blotter, and paper cutter as If It were 
constructed especially for each of Bald uses. It consists in a plate of light 
sheet metal, of suitable length and breadth, the Bides of which are bent 
downward so as to hold in a seml-cyllndrlcal form a sheet of India rubber 
which is covered with blotting paper. A narrow strip of metal soldered to 
the sides of the device serves as a paper cutter. When the blotting paper 
becomes soiled It may be easily replaced. 

Wash Boilbb.— Wellington H. Lines, Cannonsvllle, N. Y.— This boiler is 
designed to cleanse the clothes by means of boiling water elevated by 
means of steam pressure and discharged upon the top of the clothe*. The 
operation Is as follows: Water or suds sufficient in quantity to nil a lower 
compartment is Introduced into the boiler, which passes down through a 
valve tube. The clothes are then put in. Whea heat is.applled to the bot- 
tom of the boiler and steam generated, the ball valve will be forced up and 
will close the top of the tube, and the water will rise In the outside tubes 
and be discharged on top of the clothes. This water will pass down through 
the clothes, and will accumulate on the bottom till it will in a few seconds 
overcome, by its weight, the pressure of steam on the valve. The latter 
will consequently fall, and the water will return to the lower compartment. 
When the steam accumulates the valve will be again forced up and close 
the top of the tube, and thus intermitting action will be repeated every few 
seconds. No water is allowed to pass upward except through the outside 
tubes. This action Is kept up as long as may be required to thoroughly 
cleanse the clothes. 

Watek Engine.— James H. Connell, Elizabeth, N. J.— This Invention con- 
sists of an arrangement of the piston rod for filling up the space in the cyl- 
inder to economize water. It also consists In an arrangement of the piston 
and piston rod packing to simplify the cost of construction and utilize the 
water pressure for packing. It also consists ot a combination of a vaive 
and pipe connection with the valve chest, whereby the flow of water may 
be directed through it while the crank is passing the dead centers, so that 
the shocks common to the ordinary engines by the sudden stoppage of the 
water column will be avoided ; and it also consists of the combination of an 
air chamber with the valve chest of a water engine, also with an escape 
valve for neutralizing these shocks more completely than can be done with 
either alone. 

Rotary Engine.— Truckson 8. La France, Elmlra, N. Y.— The invention 
relates to the packing pieces which are affixed to the ends of cogs in rotary 
engines, and consists in a peculiar construction and application thereof. By 
making the piece wider at tho bottom than at the top, the inventor obtains 
extra surface, against which the stream may act, thus Insuring a positive 
movement. The piece being beveled is loose, movable, and cannot stick fast 
when the expansion takes place. While the cog wheel Is running in hot 
steam the pt oking piece is pushed down into the groove, and when the 
wheel is contracted by cooliHg, the springs push the pieces out against the 
case. Thus it Is tight under all circumstances. This cannot be accoml 
pllshed with a straight packing piece. 

Refrigerator.— J. Hyde Fisher, Chicago, 111.— This invention r^ates to a 
new and useful Improvement In refrigerators, having particular reference to 
a refrigerator for which letters patentof the United States weregranted the 
Inventor, dated August 1, 1865, and reissued the 31st day of January, 1871, 
which present Invention consists mainly In an air space beneath the Ice 
chamber, in the double bottom, between the ice chamber and the refrigera- 
ting or provision chambers, the lower portion of the bottom being of wood 
and the i^?er portion being metal. The air space being separated from the 
ice by only the metallic portion of the double, bottonvtbe air Uwrein par^ 
takes of the temperature of the lee, and assists in keeping up the circa- 
atloa. 



© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



26 



MmMU %mnUm. 



[January ii, 1873. 



Case fob WaiTra& Matebialb .-George B. Chase, Austinburg, Ohlo.- 
TWb Invention relates to a new case or box for the reception of pen, Ink, 
paper, etc., and consists In providing a groove nnder the bottom of the 
narrow boxfor the Insertion, transversely, of the cover, so that the cover 
■will, when the box is opened, aid in supporting the box In an upright posi- 
tion. 

Railroad Rail Joint.— Thomas Slaughter, Lawrence, Mass.— This in- 
vention is designed to fasten the fish plates and rails of railway Joints to- 
gether and to serve as a substitute for bolts and nuts. Holes are cut 
through the plates, flared large at the openings. In these arelnsertedglbs, 
and, within or between the gibs', wedges are driven so as to bend the 
gibs against the tapering wall of the hole. The tapering ends of the gibs 
are bent around the keys to prevent fheir working out. 

Connecting RoD.-Samuel N. Wate, Jr. Danville, Pa., assignor to himself 
and P. J. Adams, of same place.-Thfs Invention has for its object to im- 
prove the construction of the connecting rod described in letters patent 
No. 128,831, granted to the Inventor and P. J. Adams, July 9, 1872, so as to 
makelt simpler In construction and neater in appearance. A long strap 
passes around one end and along the side edges of the body of the rod. A 
short strap passes around the other end of the rod, and its ends overlap the 
ends of the long strap. A bolt or bar passes through slots In the end parts 
of the long strap through holes In the end parts of the short strap, and rests 
in a slot or notch In the end edge of the main body of the rod, and Is secured 
in place by nuts. Bolts, one or more of which may be used, pass through 
holes In the strap and through slots in the rod, so that the said rod and 
strap may be moved upon each other in opposite directions and still be se- 
cured by said bolts. A small block is interposed between the overlapped 
snds of the straps and the end of the rod, andagalnst which the Inner brass 
*t that end of the rod rests. A set screw passes through a screw hole in the 
•enterof the bolt In line with the length of the rod, themiddle.partof the 
and of the rod being cutaway to receive It and allow It to be operated. By 
■movement of this set screw, in combination with other mechanism, the 
*traps are drawn toward each other, drawing the outer brasses Inward just 
*s much as the Inner brasses moved outward, thus taking up the wear while 
(Keeping the pins at exactly the same distance apart. 

Papeb Folding Machine.— Alyah Washburn, Medina, Ohio.— This inven- 
tion consists of a series of light folding frames hinged on the top of a ta- 
ble, and providedwith operating gear actuated by a cam shaft, which said 
frames are arranged in such order and sizes relatively to each other that a 
printed sheet delivered on the table over all the folding frames by the de- 
positors of a printing press will be folded in the order of folding It by hand, 
-and thrown off the machine by another frame similar to the folding frames. 
The said machine is operated by the printing press from which it receives 
the sheets as they are printed. 

Plate and Sheet Guide for Rolling Mills.— James Moore, Belleville, 
N. J.— The object of "this invention Is to attach to rolling mills a device 
whereby the curling of the plates or sheets when they emerge from between 
the rollers will be prevented. At present It frequently and almost invaria- 
ably happens that the plates or sheets curl up as they emerge from between 
the rollers which makes it more difficult to subsequently handle them and 
often threatens the destruction of the entire machinery, or injury thereto. 
In order to counteract this tendency of the plates to curl, a pendent lever Is 
applied to the machine, with a foot at Its lower end that reaches to the plate 
and holds Its end down, following the motion of the plate as the same pass- 
es out of the rolling mill. 

Coal Chute.— Cornelius W. Williams, Port Jervls, N.T.— The pocket of 
the chute, in this invention, Is to be elevated sufficiently for spouting from 
It into a wagon. The lower portion of the spout Is hinged so as to fold up 
out of the way, so that a wagon can be drawn close alongside without 
being obstructed. A cross bar Is suspended In front of the lower end of 
the spout for the coal to strike against, and be thereby turned directly 
downward to prevent It from shooting over the side of the wagon. A series 
of grate bars Is arranged at the bottom of the spout to screen the coal as It 
flows from the pocket to the wagon. 

Railroad Frog.— James Brahn, Jersey city, N. J.— The Invention con- 
sists, flrBt, in slotted Iron blocks with wood filling between point and wings 
•or between the wings. This construction greatly facilitates the putting to- 
;g2ther of the frog, as the blocks can be driven in till they fit, and then holes 
;to receive the bolts can be bored through the wooden blockB through the 
Wholes In the wings and point. The wooded blocks alone bear the strain, and 
thusallow the point and wings to be drawn together more firmly and held 
more securely. The wood, by Its spring, takes up the wear, and serves as a 
•cushion to prevent Jar and noise from the wheels. The wooden parts of 
the blocks thus do the work, while the Iron parts strengthen the wood, and 
protect and preserve it from decay and from losing Its elasticity. Second, 
each fish plate Is made In two parts, which can slide upon each other. The 
inner part has two round holes formed In the end that Is bolted to the end 
of the frog, and two short slots In the ends that are to be bolted to the end 
of the rail. The outer part of each fish plate has one round hole formed In 
its outer end to receive the outer bolt, and three slots to receive the other 
bolts. This construction enables the fish platt s to be readily adjusted and 
secured to the ends of the rails of any road, and so long as one of the bolts 
remains tight the rail cannot move. The tread of the wheels, especially the 
■drive wheels of the engine, is made considerably wider than the head of the 
Tails, and by use becomes hollowed along the flange, so that the outer edge 
•of the wheel, when running upon or leaving the point of a frog, will strike 
' the other rail of said point and chip it out and injure It. To remedy this a 
aolid iron block is placed between the rails of the point at the place where 
the outer edge of the wheels strikes or leaves the rail of the point, so that 
;the outer part of the tread will be held up level with the top of the rail 
when passing upon or leaving it. 

Blackboard.— Frank G. Johnson, New York city.— This invention relates 
to a new and useful Improvement in blackboards for schools and for all the 
purposes for which the ordinary blackboard Is used • and it consists in a se- 
ries of slates or tablets and In a grooved frame or case, in which grooves the 
tablets slide. Whenflve (more or less) tablets are combined in the case 
they require no more wall space than a single one. A problem may be dem- 
onstrated on the outBide of the first tablet ; and it may be turned over and 
the other side used ; or It may be drawn out so as to expose another tablet 
;and laid away, or drawn In either direction so as to expose the next tablet or 
a part of it, and still remain in the case : and so of all the tablets. The case 
is designed to hang upon the wall. 

Coffee Pot.— Martin Hofman, San Francisco, Cal.— This Invention has for 
its object to furnish an improved coffee pot, extracting the strength so thor- 
oughly from the ground coffee that a much smaller quantity will be required 
than when an ordinary coffee pot is used. The upper part of the body of the 
coffee pot la made cylindrical in form, and the lower part is bulged or 
swelled. The bottom of the pot Is concave so as to more thoroughly con- 
centrate the heat. A funnelrests upon the bottom of thebodyandlts tube 
entersthe tube of another funnel which is placed at the lower edge of the 
cylindrical part of the body and connected with andsupported from the first 
namedfunnel. The steeper is fittedinto the mouth of the cylindrical part of 
the body, and its bottom is finely perforated or made of fine wire gauze. In 
the center of the perforated bottom of the cup or steeper Is formed a hole, 
in which is secured a tube through which the tube of the upperfunnel passes, 
and whlchls made a little larger than said funnel tube, so that steam may 
pass up between them. A perforated plate with a hole through Its center is 
designed to be placed upon the coffee In the cup and hold it down evenly and 
smoothly, so that the water may act upon and leach the coffee evenly. In 
using the coffee pot, the ground coffee is placed in the cup and the plate 
placed upon it ; then, as the water becomes heated, It is forced up through 
the tubes, flows upon the plate, and percolates through the coffee, wholly re- 
moving its strength in a very short time, the plate and cup catching any fine 
coffee that may pass through the bottom of the cup. so that the coffee will al- 
ways pour out clear. 

LevbbfobLatohes.— Charles C. Lewis, Gainesville, Ala.— Thisinvention 
relates to an attachment to door knobs, whereby the latch mechanism is 
broughtwithinreachof small children, who can thus open the doors. The 
Invention consistsm a knob lever constructed with Jaws and held by a key, 
and in providing a knob lever with spring and cord, and arranging it hori- 
zontally in a stop box. 



Turbine Water Wheel Thomas J. Alcott.Mount Holly, N. J.— This in- I 

vention consists in the construction of an Inside cylinder, with chutes and 
vertically adjustable guides, combined with an outside case. Theobject is 
to prevent the wear of the cylinder, to cause less friction, and make a per- 
fect watertight Joint. The inside adjustable cylinder has chutes or open- 
ings corresponding with the chutes or openings of the outer stationary case, 
the outer case being made of one solid casting with the lower half or curb 
smaller in circumference than the upper part. The upper part has twelve 
(more or less) openings, and between each opening and on the Inside of the 
outer cylindrical case there are recesses for the purpose of passingoff any 
sand or gritty substances that might collect between the cylinders, and 
causing less friction. On each side of each recess there are brass or Babbitt 
metal bearings to prevent the wear of the cylinder, making as perfect 
watertight Joint. The inner cylinder Is adjusted horizontally back and for- 
ward, so as to graduate the flow of the water passing through the openings 
of the outside cylindrical case, thus diminishing the size of the openings or 
closing them perfectly whenever required, and the inner cylinder is also ad- 
Justed vertically by the tightening or loosening of the nuts of the bolts or 
guides that pass through the top of the case and thecrossarmsof the top of 
the Inner cylinder, the arms beingbelowthe cover of the case; andthe cen- 
ter circular plate worksback ward and forward against and around the lower 
part of the dome of the top. For further particulars see advertisement on 
another page. 

Cradle, Crib, and Standing Stool Combined.— Calvin E. Nurse, Ches 
terfleld Factory, N. H. assignor to William "W. Hopkins, of same place.— 
This Invention has for Its object to furnish an improved combined cradle, 
crlb,«nd standing stool, which shall be so constructed that It may be con- 
veniently adjusted for use in either capacity, and which may be compactly 
folded for storage or transportation. 

Bee Hive.— William R. Clark, Plqua, Ohio.— The object of this Invention 
is to provide convenient, safe, and efficient means for wintering honey 
bees. Through the cap, which is made to fit the top of the hive above the 
honey frame and is filled with straw, is formed a channel or passage way 
which is In communication with the alighting board in front. The filling is 
kept in place by two or more cross pieces, and is lined with woolen cloth or 
other material. The bottom or platform of the cap Is composed of slats 
and clamps, and rests upon the top of the body of the hive, and is nearly 
covered Inside with woolen cloth, which may be saturated with brine or 
other solution. The bees have free access to the passage way or channel, 
and from thence to the alighting board, and are thus allowed to feed In 
winter from one comb to another. The end clamps are grooved to the ends 
of the slats, where they are fastened In any suitable manner. The alight- 
ing board Is attached to the clamp and may be removed therewith at any 
time. A ventilator and a shutter, one or both, may be closed down over 
the bee orifice of the alighting board, as may be desired. The filling ab- 
sorbs the moisture, and, together with the lining, the natural heat of the 
bees Is retained. The bees have free access from the honey frames of the 
hive to the channel in the cap, and from thence on to. the alighting board. 
The honey frames are confined to the frame by a strap or metallic hook. 
The shutter may be elevated more or less, leaving the ventilator closing the 
entrance, thusenabllngthe ventilating air current to be controlled, while 
the escape of the bees Is prevented. A small current Is maintained through 
the entrance, and up through the filling and openings In the top, thus carry- 
ing off the moisture and relieving the brood chamber of foul air or odors. 

Lamp Chandelier.— Randolph S. Mains, New York city.— The chandelier 
is so suspended that it may be raised or lowered, as may be required, and 
may be made and UBed either with or without a shade. With the common 
kerosene lamp in this chandelier, all the advantages of the expensive exten- 
sion gas chandelier are secured with this additional advantage— the light 
may be readily removed and utilized away from the chandelier. 

Treating Petroleum.— Emil Schalk, New York city.— This Invention 
conBlstB of a continuous process of treating the distillate, by which much 
time and labor will be saved. Instead of having a tank and filling it with 
oil, and then adding the sulphuric acid, the oil and the acid, In the right pro- 
portion, are allowed to run In a continuous flow into a horizontal agitator, 
where It is agitated for a certain time, allowing the product to run out at 
the other end into a series of small tankB, filling one after the other and 
allowing the first to be emptied before the last Is filled. From each tank the 
distillate is run into another horizontal agitator, where the washing is car- 
ried on In the same continuous way as when treated with acid, and in like 
manner it Is again discharged into tanks, and from there Into a third agita- 
tor to be treated with alkalies, and then washed again. 

Railroad Switch Lock.— James L. Anderson, Bucyrus, Ohio.— This Inven- 
tion relateB to a new means for locking the switch levers on railroads, 
automatically and effectively. The invention consists in providing the 
switch lever with an up and down adjustable transverse bolt, which will 
drop Into notches of the arcs between which the lever can be moved. The 
invention also consists in combining with th&aforementioned key a project- 
ing ear on the lever, a vertical drop bolt Jor locking into it, and an ordinary 
key for raising the drop bolt and liberating the lever when desired. 

Dumping Wagon.— Charles G. Taft, Triangle, N. Y.— The object of this 
Invention is to furnish a wagon for transporting and unloading stone and 
similar material. The sides of the body are rigidly attached to the bolster 
and to the rear axle, so that they are Immovable. The end boards are rigidly 
attached to the bottom. An Iron rod, secured at the ends, passes through the 
two end boards, and rests upon the inside of the bottom In the middle of the 
wagon. The bottom and ends being thus supported by this rod, are allowed 
to turn thereon in either direction. On each side of the wagon box, and 
working In a slot in the side board, iB a cam lever, so arranged that the cams 
come Just above the bottom when the levers are turned up to the side 
boards.. When one of the cams is turned out, the bottom will, turn and 
dump the load ; but when both cams are turned In, the bottom Is secured in 
a horizontal position, and may be loaded with stone or other material, and 
In this condition the load may be moved or transported, and then dumped 
on either side, as may be desired. 



Blow-off for Steam Boilers Buckingham C. Nye, Pomeroy, Ohio . 

The invention relates to that part of a boiler which is immediately above 
the fire, which is accustomed to become covered with scale and sediment, 
and which is thereby rendered liable to rapid oxidation, to diminution in 
strength, and to the production of explosions. The invention consists in, 
two horizontal tubes having each a continuous slot on the bottom, and emp- 
tying into a central vertical discharge tube which is open at the bottom, to 
produce an upwardly perpendicular current directly therethrough. 

Wagos Brake.— George W. Jackman, Bath, N. H.— The Invention con- 
sists Informing an automatic brake of a bar pivoted near to the end of a 
tongue and Jointed to a brace hinged to the axle, whereby the holding back 
of the animals applies the brake. It also consists In a peculiar mode of 
curving the bar, and Jointing it to the brace so as to give relief to strain 
upon the necks of the animals. 

Vertical Boiler.— Philip Estes, Leavenworth, Kansas.— The Invention 
relates to a vertical boiler, more especially designed for heating hot houses 
or other buildings with hot water. It consists, first, in constructing the 
boiler and furnace in three easily detachable sections, whereby the com- 
monest mechanic can take it apart, clean, and again put It together. It 
consists, secondly, In providing the crown sheet with cups and circulating 
tubes that hang down In the fire chamber, to facilitate the heating opera- 
tion. 

Machine for Cutting Fabbio into Pieces for Bags.— "Wfill lam J. Cus- 
sen, Richmond, Va.— The invention consists In a spring clamp swlveled to 
the side of a table, holding together the fractional parts of a previously cut 
piece while others are being unfolded, and turning to one side when its 
function has been performed, 

Doffee Stripper.— A. M. Comstock, Holden, Mass.— The stripper .s pro 
vided with teeth beveled on one side, and is arranged so as to support the 
stock or roving between the card cylinder and condensing rolls, and deliver 
it to the latter In a peculiarly effective manner. It Is especially adapted for 
use when short stock Is being worked up. 

Cultivator.— William D. Smith, Homerville, Ga.— This invention has for 
Its object to furnish an Improved cultivator, so constructed as to stir up 
the soil to any desired depth without turning up the fertilizer to the 
surface and to avoid having Its gases evaporated by the rays of the 
sun. The bar or beam to which the plows are attached is made In zigzag 
form, to form shoulders or off sets for the attachment of the plowB. The 
rear part of the draft bar or beam Is bent or curved upward, and has a hole 
formed In Its upper end to receive the round that connects the handleB and 
holds them In their proper relative positions. The ends of the zlgzagbar or 
beam are supported by the brace rods, the rear ends of which are secured 
to the ends of the said bar or beam, and their forward ends are secured 
to the forward part of the draft bar or beam. The plows are made long and 
narrow, are curved or bent downwardand forward, and are twisted so that 
their forward sides maybe slightly inclined to allow the soil to slide off the 
said plows as they are drawn forward, thus enabling them to stir up the 
soil thoroughly and move it toward or from the plants as may be desired. 
The zlgzagbar or be^m may be made of any desired length, and may have 
any desired number of shoulders or offsets for the attachment of plows. 

Billiard Table.— William H. Griffith, New York city.— This Invention 
relates to a new manner of bracing and sustaining the top of a billiard 
table. Such top Is now usually made of slate or other mineral substance In 
three or more slabs, whlchare placed side by side upon the supporting frame, 
and Is liable to sag in the middle, especially on tables having but four legs, 
and also to open the Joints between the several slabs or pieces of slate. 
Either of these occurrences would virtually destroy the billiard table. The 
Invention consists In the arrangement of metallic bars, which connect with 
the end slabs and press under a middle bridge of the billiard table, serving 
to draw the slabs firmly together, and also to hold the middle of the table 
up, and thus keep the top level. This invention is the conception of an 
extensive billiard table manufacturer, and Is intended to greatly Improve 
the strength of the table. 

Sash Holdee.— William Branch and Mark J. Llddell, Lalngsburg, Mich.— 
The object of this invention is to furnish convenient and efficient means 
for holding window sashes in any desired position when raised, and for 
fastening them securely down when closed ; and it consists in a weighted 
lever with a double cam attached thereto, one of which cams being arranged 
to hold the sash up and the other to hold It down. 

Barber's Chair.— Francis J. Coates, Cincinnati, O.— This invention has 
for its object to furnish an improved barber's c'lair ; and It consists in the 
arrangement of devices so that byoperatingafoot lever the seat maybe 
reversedwhenlthas become warmfrom use, or set at different angles when 
desired, and so that the pivoted back will adjust itself to the angle opposi- 
tion of the seat and the back of the sitter. 



Ore Jigger.— Johann Friedrich Utsch, Iserlohn, Germany.— The object of 
this invention is to produce an automatic discharge for Jig machines where- 
by the several grades of ores will be discharged according to their specific 
gravity without reference to size. The Invention consists in the application 
to the jig sieve of two, three, or more discharge pipes, whose upper ends 
project at various distances above the sieves, so that during operation the 
heavier parts of the ore will be discharged through the pipe projecting 
least, while the lighter grades, forming higher strata on the sieve, will be 
discharged through the pipes projecting higher. 

Automatic Car Brake.— John E. Worthman, Mobile, Ala.— The inven- 
tion has in view to connect all the brakes of a train with a mechanism on 
the tender, or on the truck of any car. It consists in the mode of tripping 
the spring rack, which locks the brakes, so that the latter will be at once 
allowed to assume a position out of contact with the wheels. It also con- 
sists in a novel mode of automatically ungearing a drum winding pinion 
from an endless screw which rotates it, so that the brake lever will be 
locked at a given point and the brakes operated with a given pressure. It 
also consists in a novel mode of regulating the time when the ungearing of 
said pinion from said endless screw shall take place, so that greater or less 
force may be applied. It also consists in the general method of operating 
all the brakes of a train of cars simultaneously and with a uniform force- 
In going down an Incline, the acquired momentum produces an immense 
strain upon the costly engine and racks, and greatly lessons its durability, 
because the brakes are applied at different times by the several brakesmen. 
This Is avoided entirely by using simultaneous brakes. 

Plow.— Henry C. Godfrey, Elizabeth City, N.C.— The Invention relates to 
thatclassof plows which are employed in the cultivation of cotton, espe- 
cially in its early growth. The invention consists' In a scraper formed of 
two parts, one of which serves to run an Inch (or a fraction thereof) beneath 
the surface of the soil and thus to cut up the weeds, while the other serves 
as a cutter, but mainly as a guard, to prevent the loose sollfrom falling over 
on the plants. Secondly. The invention consists in the arrangement of a 
small turn plow on the side, to the rear of the front, and above the bottom 
of the landslde of a larger plow, so as to follow the scraper and throw clean 
soil to the stems of the young cotton plants. Thirdly. Thelnvention con- 
sists, finally, in the mode of attaching the small plow to the landslde of the 
larger one. 



Shoemaker's Tool.— Joseph F.Ober.Mount Desert, Me. —This invention 
has for its object to furnish an improved combination tool, designed more 
especially for shoemaker's use. In using the tool the upper Is grasped with 
the pinchers and drawn Into place. The tool 1b then reversed while being 
raised, and with a blow, as if with a hammer, the awl is driven Into place. 
A peg Is then taken from the mouth and inserted In the hole and driven 
into place by a blow with the hammer, the tool being reversed In the hand 
while being raised to give the blow. In this way the shoe may be lasted 
without laying down the tool, except at the toe, when It Is laid down to 
shave off the folds of the upper to make it He smooth. 

Sucker Rod Elevator.— Lewis K. Stltts and Solomon R. Dresser, Parker's 
Landing, Pa.— This Invention relates to the pumping machinery of oil and 
salt wells -, and consists In a device for elevating the sucker or pump rod. 
The elevator consists of a box or frame made In two parts . one part opens 
as a gate to allow the sucker rod to be slipped in or out. Pivots or journals 
are formed on or pass through the two parts of the box or frame. Bails 
are attached to the pivots and a stop plate is fixed on the outside of each of 
the two parts of the box or frame. In sending the elevator to the swivel- 
man up in the derrick, both balls are put on to a hook of the sacker rod 
line, leaving the gate of the elevator open, so that the swlvelman has 
nothing to do but to slip the elevator under the shoulders of the sucker 
rod and shut the elevator gate. 

Car Coupling.— Erwln C.Hubbard, GreenBay, Wis.— This Invention has 
for Its object to furnish an improved car coupling, which will couple Itself 
as the cars are run together. In the forward end of the bumper head Is 
formed a mouth or recess to receive the coupling link. The coupling hook 
is a bar having a hook formed upon each end. The bar is placed in a slot In 
the upper side of the bumper head, the forward hook of said bar projecting 
downward into the mouth or throat of the bumper head, and its rear hooks 
projecting downward into a slot or recess in the middle part of the bumper 
head so as to sustain the draft strain by resting against the solid part of the 
bumper head between the said hooks. The hook bar is held down Into Its 
place by a spring laid In a groove formed to receive it in the upper side of 
the bumpers, which is kept from moving longitudinally, and which enters a 
recess In the said bumper head. The spring Is held down in its place by the 
edge of the rear end of a shield, which Is made hollow and open at its front 
end, and serves as a guard to prevent the hook from being pressed down or 
Jammed, so that It cannot be raised by the entering link, and as a guide to 
prevent the bumperheadfrom lifting. 

Lock for Umbrellas, etc.— Slgourney Wales, New York city.— This in 
vention relates to a new device for locking the wire springs which support 
the sliding tubes or sleeves, on which umbrella sticks are held In position, 
referring more particularly to the lower spring by which the umbrella Is 
held closed. The Invention consists in the combination, with the said wire 
spring, which is of ordinary construction, of a sliding slotted tube within 
the umbrella stick, and of a spring connected witL said tube, and of a key 
for setting said tube so that the umbrella cannot be opened without said 
key. 

Sewing Machine Table Attachment.— John C. Egley, Philadelphia, 
Penn.— This invention relates to the application of a hinged extension leaf 
containing tTo drawers to the table of a sewing machine, one of the drawers 
containing a pivoted self -balancing trough or vessel, which will always be 
right side up, whether the leaf attachment is swung up or down - while the 
other drawer has two slide covers, of which the one ou top is or should b* 
used in the corresponding position of the leaf. 



© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January ii, 1873.] 



$timfflu %mtnau. 



ffte Charge/or Insertion under this head is $1 a Line. 



"Minton & Co.'s Tiles," by appointment, Gil- 
bert Elliott & Co., Sole Agents, No. 11 Clinton Place, 
8th St., New York. 

Gear Wheels for Models. Illustrated Price 
List free. Also Materials ol all kinds. Goodnow & Wight- 
man, 28 Cornhlll, Boston, Mass. 

English. Patent — The Proprietors of the 
" Heald & Cisco Centrifugal Pump" (triumphant at the 
recentFairs), having their hands full at home, will sell 
their Patent for Great Britain, Just obtained. A great 
chance for business In England. Address Heald, Slsco & 
Co., Baldwlnsvllle.N. Y. 

To Inventors — Wanted, by a responsible 
Philadelphia Arm, the right to manufacture, on royalty 
or otherwise, some useful Invention In Iron. Address, 
giving description of article, Artlzan, West Philadel- 
phia P.O., Pa. 

For the best Presses and Dies and all Fruit 
Can Tools, apply to Bliss & Williams, 118 to 120 Plymouth 
St., Brooklyn. 

Painters and Grainers now do their best 
graining quickly with perforatedMetallicGralnlngTools. 
Address J. J. Callow, Cleveland, Ohio, 

For Sale — One Iron Planer with tools and 
attachments, used only three months ; planes 8 ft. long, 
8ft. sq. J. R. Abbe, Manchester,!^. H. 

American Boiler Powder, for certainty, safe- 
ty, and cheapness, "The Standard antl-incrustant." Am. 
B. P. Co.,Box797, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

For Circular of Surface Planers and Patent 
Miter Dovetailing Machines, send, to A. Davis, Lowell, 



Langdon Adjustable Mitre Box, with 18, 20, 
22, or 24 inch Back Saw. Address D. C. Rogers, Treasurer, 
Northampton, Mass. 

Scale in Boilers. I will Remove and prevent 
Scale in any Steam Boiler, or make no charge. Send for 
circular. Geo. W. Lord, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sewing Machine Needle Machinery, Groov- 
ers, Reducers, Wire Cutters, &c. &c. Hendey Bro's, Wol- 
cottville, Conn. 

Gauges, for Locomotives, Steam, Vacuum, 
Air, and Testing purposes— Time and Automatic Record- 
ing Gauges— Engine Counters, Rate Gauges, and Test 
Pumps. All kinds fine brassworkdoneby The Recording 
Steam Gauge Company, 91 Liberty Street, New York, 

Ross Bro's Paint and Grain Mills, Williams- 
burgh, N.Y. 

Dobson's Patent Scroll Saws make 1100 
strokes per minute. Satisfaction guaranteed. John B. 
Schenck's Sons, 118 Liberty St., N. Y. 

The Berryman Manuf. Co. make a specialty 
of the economy and safety in working Steam Boilers. I. 
B. Davis & Co., Hartford, Conn.;; 

Absolutely the best protection against Fire 
— Babcock Extinguisher. F. W. Farwell, Secretary, 407 
Broadway, New York. 

Hydraulic Jacks and Presses — Second Hand 
Plug Tobacco Machinery. Address E. Lyon, 470 Grand 
St., New York. 

Steel Castings " To Pattern," from ten lbs. 
upward, can be forged and tempered. Address Collins 
& Co., No. 212 Water St., N. Y. 

Heydrick's Traction Engine and Steam 
Plow, capable of ascending grades of 1 foot in 8 with 
perfect ease. For circular and Information, Address W 
H. H. Heydrlck, Chestnut Hill, Phila. 

The Berryman Steam Trap excels all others. 
TCb best Is always the cheapest. Address I. B. Davis & 
Co., Hartford, Conn. 

T. R. Bailey & Vail, Lockport, N. Y., Manf. 

Gauge Lathes. 

Williamson's Road Steamer and SteamPlow, 
wlthrubber Tires.Address D. D. Williamson, 32 Broad- 
way, N. Y., or Box 1809. 

Belting as is Belting — Best Philadelphia 
Oak Tanned. C.-W. Amy, 301 and 303 Cherry Street, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Boynton's Lightning Saws. The genuine 
$500 challenge. Will cut five times as fast as an ax. A 
six foot cross cut and buck saw, $6. E. M. Boynton, 80 
Beekman Street, New York, Sole Proprietor. 

For Steam Fire Engines,address R. J. Gould, 
Newark, N.J. 

Brown's Coaly ard Quarry & Contractors' Ap- 
paratus for hoisting and conveying materialby iron cable, 
W.D. Andrews & Bro.414 Waterst.N. Y. 

For Solid Wrought-iron Beams, etc., see ad- 
vertisement. Address Union Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
for lithograph, etc. 

Mining, Wrecking, Pumping, Drainage, or 
Irrigating Machinery, forlsaleorrent. See advertisement, 
Andrew's Patent, inside page. 

Presses, Dies & all can tools.Ferracute Mch. 
Works, Bridge ton, N. J. 

Gatling guns, that fire 400 shots per minute, 
with a range of over 1,000 yards, and which weigh only 
155 pounds, are now being made at Colt's Armory, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

A New Machine for boring Pulleys, Gears, 
Spiders, etc. etc. No limit to capacity. T. R. Bailey & 
Vail, Lockport, N.Y. 

The Berryman Heater and Regulator for 
Steam Boilers— No one using Steam Boilers can afford to 
be without them. I. B.Davis & Co. 

Peck's Patent Drop Press. Milo Peck & Co., 
New Haven, Conn. 

For2,4,6&8 H. P. Engines, address Twiss 
Bro., New Haven, Conn. 

Millstone Dressing Diamond Machine — 
Simple, effective, durable. For description of the above, 
Bee Scientific American, Nev. 27th, 1S69. Also, Glazier's 
Diamonds. John Dickinson, 64 Nassau St., New York. 

Badoux's Rapid Evaporator, low tempera- 
ture, half cost, vacuum pan, simple, economical, no at- 
tendance required. In daily use, Works Rahway Glue 
Co., Rahway, N.J. Salt, Sugar, Glue Manufacturers, 
send for circular. 

Knowles No. 2 pump, new, six horse An- 
drews engine, two large house heaters, with fixtures, 
for sale. Address Rahway Glue Manufacturing Co., Rah- 
way.N. J.. Agents Badoux's Rapid Evaporator. 

Wanted — A Hydraulic Press with Cylinder 
11 to 16 Inches ; pla ten, 80 to 40 Inched. Address Box 524, 
BMton P. O. 



Parties having hand power sawing machines 
for cutting down large timber, address J. H. Mitchell, 
14 N. 5th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

The new and improved tool, simplest of in- 
ventions. Patent right for sale. Address C. E. Little- 
field, Vlnal Haven, Maine. 

Hammer Dies and Heads, strong and dura- 
ble, cast to order by Pittsburgh Steel Casting Co. All 
work warranted. 

A foot power riveting hammer, in good or 
der, may be had, cheap, of F. C. Beach & Co., 181 Duane 
Street, New York. 

Always right side up— The Olmsted Oiler, 
enlarged and Improved. Sold everywhere. 

Wanted to purchase, six good second hand 
Milling Machines, two extra heavy. Address P. O. Box 
2258,New Haven, Conn. 

Standard and experimental machinery built 
for responsible parties at low rates. Every facility. 
S. C. Forsalth & Co., Manchester, N. H. 



27 



matter andcommonmetalsare liquid. " It isnot impos- 
sible, nor Is H improbable, that there may be a central 
solid mass of alloyed metals whose melting point Is too 
high to allow even a temperature higher than that of ,a 
blast furnace to fuse It."* 
'Professor Thurston. 

M. H. W„ of N. Y., H. C. K., of Mass., and 

others, write us In reference toourreply to the question 
of R. and W. about the fly wheel. The subject seems to 



dissolved, but such solution will not saturate. Shellao 
gum copal, pitch and rosin may be dissolved and mixed 
so that fibrous materials may be saturated with them, 
butrubb^rseparatesfrom its so called solvents, or rather 
the solvent evaporates and leaves the rubber In a thin 
film on the surface over which it Is spread. Neither will 
fire melt it, for at melting heat rubber will decompose, 
making a tremendous smoke andleavlngvery little resid- 
uum. Rubber is a unique substance. About vulcanized 



be one in which many of our readers are interested.and ~ TJ^SS. J° f^. £ S=l Tlti' II" 




1. — Will some one give me a good and sim- 
ple recipe for making tracing paper and cloth ?— T.W. M. 
2. — How can I make a varnish that will be 

It is to 



transparent, and so hard that It will not scratch? 
be used on paper and cardboard.— T. C. T. 

3. — Can there be an ink manufactured of 

anyparticularcolorthatwlll not be !visible|to the naked 
eyeonaparticular colored paper, and yet be discernible 
throughsome particular colored glass?— U.K. J. 

4. — What chemicals are used in boiling wa- 
ter to kill moss and at the same time to dye It black ? The 
moss grows here on the trees, and is used for filling mat- 
tresses.— G. G. L. 

5. — Please give me a recipe for making 

"Alaska scenery," namely, white formations (in water), 
which, in size and form, hare a resemblance to moun- 
tains, etc. I hare seen them In druggists 1 windows In 
dlfferentpartsof the city. Can the " Alaska scenery "be 
colored red, yellow, blue, and green?— G. W. H. 

6. — The [preparation and dressing of furs 
saem to beheld a secret from the general public and an 
entlremonopoly, from the Hudson Bay Company's trade 
to that of manufacturing the furs Into garments. Can 
any one furnish particulars of the best and simplest 
methods of such preparation, and also any Improved sci- 
entific methods adoptedby those who so farmonopollze 
the trade ? What Is the most elaborate work on fur dress- 
ing?— H.I. E. 

7. — I can tin wrought and malleable cast 

Iron byflrst placing the Iron In a pickle of oil of vitriol, 
then I wash It off and dip It Into muriatic acid, and then 
into molten tin. I always have good success with malle- 
able cast and wrought Iron, but cannot make the metal 
adhere to ordinary cast Iron. Will you please Inform me 
what different process I need to use for thelatter?— C. 
H.B. 




L. A. B. — See our editorial article, " Losses 

of Power In the Steam Engine." Tou are nearly right 
In your estimate of average leverage of cranks ; the fig- 
ure is 0-7854. There is no loss of power arising out of 
the employment of the crank. 

S. L. P., of N. J., says there is a question 
between himself and friend in respect to two examples 
of masonry, one of which is built on straight lines 
and the other In form of an arch, the longitudinal 
space covered by the walls being exactly the same. 
One claims that the quantity of masonry In each example 
Is the same, the other, that the arch contains the great- 
er quantity. Answer: The arch, supposing It to be in 
the form of a half circle, contains fifty per cent more 
masonry than the straight wall. 

A. P. M. says : Is the friction greater on 

Journalsthree feet In diameter or journals one Inch In 
diameter? The length and quality of the bearings, the 
weight upon the journals, and the number of revolu- 
tions are the same in both cases. Far answer, see edito- 
rial remarks, on another page, entitled "Friction of 
Journals." 

C. W. S. asks : At what speed or how many 
feet per minute a circular saw should run, for sawing 
zinc plates one half inch thick, and brass bolts orbarsof 
threeinchesdiameter? Answer : About 1,000 revolutions 
per minute for a six inch saw will do. 

W. H. L. says : What is the difference of 
cost in running a car by horse and steam power? An- 
swer: The estimated prime cost and running expenses 
for a first class two horse street car in thisclty, interest, 
wear and tear, driver, conductor, stabling and all the 
expenses Included, Is $8,150 per annijm. The same esti- 
mate for the running of each dummy or steam street 
car Is $7,178, showing an economy of almost $1,000 a year 
Infavorof steam. 

B. says : The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN in an ar- 
ticle headed "Scientific and Mechanical Possibilities" 
says on page 329, volume XX VII.: "Heat Increases about 
one degree for every fifty feet that we penetrate the 
earth." A California paper of November 8 has the fol- 
lowing: /'The greatest blow ever given to the hot 
liquid theory of the interior of the earth was that de- 
monstrated by the artesian well at St. Louis, which de- 
veloped a temperature at the depth of 3,800 feet which 
was too cold to be determined by any instrument of 
science at the time in use for such a purpose." Will you 
please to explain whether the above article is erroneous ? 
Answer: The statement which you quote from the Cali- 
fornia paper of Nov. 8, Is absolutely false, and is either the 
result of some most remarkable misunderstanding, or is 
one of those unpardonable misstatements which are 
sometimes purposely- Introduced by dishonorable per- 
sons into newspapers, and which have done a vast 
amount of mischief by misleading the public. Experi- 
ments give varying results. Some Indicate an increase 
of 1° Fahr. f oreach 50 feet of descent, while others show 
an Increase of 1° Fahr. for each 100 feet. All concur, 
however, in exhibiting an Increase of temperature as 
the earth's crust Is penetrated. Estimates of the thick- 
ness of the earth's crust hare been frequently made 
It Is not more than a few hundred miles, and may be less 
than one hundred. Below it, the temperature must he 
uniform, or nearly so, since there, all ordinary earthy 



we will endeavor, In an early Issue, to state the prlnci 
Dies involved in such manner that all may understand 
the difference between a "standing" and a "running"bal- 
ance and between the case which we specified and 
those presented by our correspondents. We will here 
simply remind them that we stated that "If the wheel 
Is accurately balanced, and is perfectly symmetrical, it 
does not necessarily produce unsteadiness in the shaft." 
H. C. K. has experimented withmoldingmachlnes, grind- 
stones afid planing machines and has been annoyed by 
unsteadiness of movement simply because, although, in 
good standing balance, there was a lack of symmetry. 
His method of securing a running balance is a method 
of securing symmetry. By symmetry Ismeant suchan 
arrangement of heavy material that each particle Is bal- 
anced by another, equally heavy and equally distantfrom 
the center of motion. In such a case only can we get a 
perfect standing and a perfect running balance at the 
same time. A standing balance, otherwise, will not be 
a running balance, nor is a running balance necessarily 
a standing balance. 

P. R. S. says : I think of putting in a 10 
horsepower steam engine. I will have to dig 20 feet 
and get very hard water, or put in a cistern and use 
water from roof. Can you tell me how much water I 
would have to use per hour in my boiler to get 10 horse 
power, and how will It work to run the escape pipe down 
Into the water in the cistern ? Would it not condense it 
so that there would be but little loss? Answer: Amod- 
aratelygood boiler driving an ordinarily good 10 horse 
power engine would require about a hundred gallons of 
water per hour. A bad boiler and inefficient machine 
might use nearly double that quantity, while the best 
boilers and very best known portable engines may be 
expected to run regularly at 10 horse power on fifty gal- 
lons per hour. Tour arrangement of exhaust would not 
be satisfactory. It would only heat the surface, and if 
carried down under water would subject you to serious 
loss by back pressure. 

E. T. Q., of N. H., says: I observe in your 
paper for Dec. 21,1872, a reply to E. and W., in which you 
affirm that a balance wheel perfectly symmetrical and 
accuratelybalanced.keyed firmly upon a shaft in any posi- 
tion, " does not necessarily produce unsteadiness in the 
shaft." lam unable to understand how your reply can 
be correct, unless you have some unusual meaning for 
the expression "unsteadiness in the shaft." Will you 
explain more fully, and will you also state whether a 
shaft carrying a perfectly symmetrical and accurately 
balanced wheel, keyed firmly at an angle of 45° to the 
shaft, will saw rapidly without jumping from Its bearings 
'.* not held down? Answer: Already answered else- 
where. We were probably not sufflclentlypreciselnour 
language. The shaft would leave Its bearings If uncon- 
flned, and driven at sufficiently high speed. It would 
not necessarily give trouble In all cases. 

E. B. M. says : I notice that some of your 
correspondents recommend tanbark to clear a boiler of 
scale. Will It be Injurious to our boiler to use water 
strongly Impregnated with old sour liquor from the vats 
of a tan yard, the liquor being conducted directly from 
the vats, after being exhausted of Its strength In tan- 
ning skins, to the feed water of the boiler? Answer: 
Water strongly Impregnated with old sour liquor from a 
tannery would, In time, corrode your boiler and might 
lo serious injury. If you cannot elsewhere obtain pure 
rater, try It cautiously. Vegetable acids attack iron as 
lo mineral acids, although you may find the solution so 
weak as not to haveany appreciable effect In a longtime. 

W. E. H. says : Given two boilers, each 3 
feet diameter, cylindrical, one 6 feet and the other 12 
feet In length, all other things equal, Is there any differ- 
ence in the pressure per square Inch required to produce 
rupture? Or In other words, does the length have any 
thing to do with the bursting strain? Answer: The 
length of a steam boiler has no effect either to Increase 
or diminish Its resistance to bursting pressure. 

One of your correspondents* Le R. F. G., of 

Mass., maintains, or strives to maintain, that the part of 
a moving locomotive wheel In contact with the rail does 
not, " for the time being," move forward. I am Inclined 
to the opinion that, for the following reasons, no part ol 
such wheel is devoid of a forward movement : 1st. If we 
closely watch a wheel while turningf orward.it " seems" 
as though no part was stationary even for an Instant. 2d. 
If the top part of a wheel has a forwardmovement de- 
pendent upon the progress of the wheel upon the rail, 
and Independent of its motion upon the axle, it " seems" 
tome that every other part of the wheel must have a 
forwardmovement also, because no part of the wheel 
has abackwardmovement, aud all parts are so connected 
wlththe top as that If one moves the othermust. If. a 
locomotive wheel, four feet in diameter, with No. 1 
marked on Its highest part, and No. 2 on the part In 
contact with the rail, revolves one quarter round, It will 
bring No. 1 two feet In advance of the axle; and as 
the axle has moved forward nearly three feet,or one 
quarter of the wheel's circumference on the rail, No. 1 
will be near five feet In advance of the position It first 
occupied. And as the movement of the wheel one quar- 
terround places No. 2 twofeet behind the axle, which has 
moved near three feet forward.lt places No. 2 near one 
foot In advance of the place it started from. .And as the 
descending movement of No. 1 Is equal to the ascending 
movement of No. 2, It results that No. 1 has moved more 
than three times faster than No. 2. If we take two 
wheels an Inch in diameter, with a mark on the circum- 
ference of each, and hold one stationary in one hand 
while we take hold of an axle passing through the 
center of the other, we will find, on putting the marked 
places together and revolving the one on the axle around 
the other that the one revolving turns once, and only 
once, around on Its axis.— S.S.G. 



process of vulcanization is simply submitting the rub- 
ber to heat (steam or hot air) in such a manner that the 
heat can be regulated and controlled as to time and de 
gree. I have heard vulcanization compared with the 
burning of bricks, but there Is no similarity in the pro- 
cesses, for the bricks are brought in contact with the flr» 
Rubber treatedln that way would decompose.— A. E. "V 
E., of Mass. 

By my query, page 340, Volume XXVIL, 1 
wished to find out If J. W., or any one else, knows any 
practicable way to shift a belt from a loose pulley at the 
driven end, provided, of course, that the belt is not in 
motion. There are plenty of mechanics who are ready 
to adopt any evident Improvement when putting up 
machinery. I think some of them could be fooled sev 
eral dollars worth with such advice as J. W.'s, pe.ge 292. 
J. E. S., page 378, intimates that Itlsnot good practice to 
make the loose pulley much smaller than the tight one, 
His experience must differ very much from mine, though 
In my other article my language implied more than ] 
meant when I said a difference of anlnchlsnohindranct 
to the shifting of the belt. The plan recommended by 
Mr. Coleman Sellers of making the hub of the loose pul 
ley longer than the face is a good one, and In addition the 
face shouldbe made very high in themlddle, so that,iftht 
hub wears so as to allow the pulley to tip to one side, 
the belt will keep as nearas possible on the middle of It. 
When a loose pulley tips, so that the shifter has to be 
depended on to keep the belt from running off, the fric- 
tion on the shifter wears the belt very fast. When the 
driven pulley Is placed over the driver, a properly made 
tightener is in most case8,preferable to a loose pulley. 
Some light machines, as a saw table, with the driving 
shaft directly below, can be set on guides and the tension 
of the belt made by moving the machine. This plan 
works exceedingly well. The tension of the belt can be, 
as It can also with the tightener, regulated to a nicety, 
which Is very desirable as it saves unnecessary straining 
of the belt and saves much time In lacing It, and the 
belt Is not wearing while the machine stands still.— 
W. G.B.,of Mich. 

To J. E. S. query 1, page 378.— For lacing 
rubber belts use calf skin, tanned as for boots. Cut 
lengthwise the skin, and take out the stretch with water 
Instead of oil. My experience Is that one such lacing 
will outlast two of the oil tanned, and will not spoil 
your belt.— H.D.I. 
— — — ^— ™^« — — — ^ — i i^ ^< 

[OFFICIAL.] 

Index of Inventions 

For which Letters Patent of the 
United States were granted. 

Foe the week ending December 10, 1872, 
and each bearing that date. 



SCHEDULE OF PATENT FEES l 

On each Caveat $10 

On each Trade-Mark $25 

On filing each application for a Patent (17 years) ...$15 

O n Issuing each original Patent. $20 

On appeal to Examlners-ln-Chlef $10 

On appeal to Commissioner of Patents $20 

On application for Reissue $30 

On application for Extension of Patent $50 

On granting the Extension $50 

On filing a Disclaimer $10 

On an application for Design (S^ years) $10 

On an application for Design. (7 years) $15 

On an application for Design (14 years) $30 



To J. E. S., query 1, page 378.— After more 
than twenty yearsexperience in the use of rubber belts I 
find Iron hooks to be the most convenient and most dur- 
able splice. Cut the two endsof the belt perfectly square, 
and punch the holes for the hooks on an exact line. For 
heavy belts use two rows of hooks. In this way each 
hook will have the same strain. Do not depend on your 
eye for punching the holes on a line, but first mark a 
line with a square and Mien punch the holes, not too 
large for the hook. Now about dissolving rubber In 
spirits of niter. There Is no such thing as dissolved 
rubber In the true sense of the word. With essential oils 
It can be expanded, and It has the aopeanuoa of lwluj 



Baletie.H.A. House 133,858 

Bale tie fastener, R. 8. Sayre 133,803 

Basket, S. I. Russell 133,398 

Bath chamber, G.F. Foote 133,703 

Bed bottom, Turnbull & Webb (reissue) 5,183 

Boiler, wash, B. Jennings 133,779 

Boiler blow off, B. C. Nye 133,881 

Boiler for ranges, hot water, P. Lesson 133,866 

Bolt.flour, C. B. Slater 133,808 

Boot, Felton and Floyd 133,767 

Bootseam, Brackett and Whitcomb 133,826 

Boots, Inserting pegs ln,T. T. Prosser 133,798 

Boots, slitting soles for, W. Wickersham 138,734 

Bottle stopper, J.H. Parkhurst 133,883 

Box, etc., coal, E. B. Jewett , 138,780 

Brick cleaning machine, T. M. Schleler 133,893 

Bridle, J. H. Wilson 133,817 

Bridles, connection for, J. C. Covert 133,834 

Brushmaklng machine, E. F. Bradley 133,827 

Buckle, harness, A.Walker 133,904 

Bullet, explosive, S. H. Mead, Jr 133,714 

Button, lacing, D. Heaton 133,857 

Button hole cutter, CM. Johnson 133,706 

Canceling, etc., revenue stamps, C. F. Martorana. 133,871 

Canal boat propeller, P. Rlpplngham 133,891 

Caraxle.G. W. Mlltimore 183,790 

Car brake, W. 8. Foster 133,844 

Car brake, W.Nelson 133,87? 

Car brake, hand, J. McGinn 133,872 

Car coupling, S. C. Bole 133,824 

Car seat, A. Rapp 133,721 

Carding machine stripper, A. M.Constock 133,832 

Carriage, landau, H. Klllam 133,862 

Carriage lantern, T. Wlgley 133,735 

Carriage prop block. C.H.Davis 133,764 

Carriage curtain fastening, A. M. Bardwell 133,693 

Carriage front, landaulet, E. Wells 133,910 

Carriage wheel hub, J.H. Harper (reissue) 5,18? 

Carriage spring coupling, C S.Hall 133,705 

Carriage clips, forming, W. S.Ward 133,906 

Caster for trunks, G. Havell 133,856 

Churn, J.E. Mitchell 133,717 

Churn, M. Moses 133,876 

Cigar perforator, E. A. Konter 133,864 

Cigar bunches, making, S.Scholfleld 133,725 

Clothes drier, J. P. "acker 133,882 

Coal scuttle, D. Smith 133,806 

Corner strip, G. Corbett (reissue) 5,171' 

Cornice tool, J.P. Ballantlne 188,820 

Corrugating metal, A. W. Gray 183,77'i 

Cotton cleaner, J. L. Coker 133,761 

Cultivator, C. and P.O. Krogh 183,865 

Digger, potato, D.M.Lamb 183,711' 

DlabwMlMr A.W. Thornton . , W,W' 



) 1 873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



28 



g&mtiiu J^ntxbam. 



[January ii, 1873. 



Dominoes, etc.. manufacture of, G. H. Chlnnock. . 133,697 

Door knobs, rose for, H» H. Elwell 183,842 

Ooughfcneader.L. Bell 133,823 

Oresser.mlddllngs, G.T.Smith #3,898 

•^arth closet, J. G. Smlt» lss ' 899 

"tesel, E.G. Chormann 133,759 

Aerator, steam water, W. Burdon. 133,746,183,747, 133,748 

Same 183,749,133,750, 133,751,133,752,133,753, 133,754 

Knglne, locomotive, W.S.Hudson 183,859 

Engine, rotary, W. P. Kidder 183,861 

Engine, locomotive, G. H. Babcock 133,741 

Bnglne, steam, C.E. Lamb 133,784 

Engine, steam, S. Torrey 183,813 

Engine, steam and vapor, Babcock & Wilcox 183,742 

Engine, air compressing, J. McLeish 133,713 

Kngravlng, H.S.Ingersoll 133,860 

Knvelope machine, A. A.Hheutan 183,800 

Envelope opener, A. Kline 133,783 

Knvelope, registered, W. F. McCrary 133,712 

Kabrics, cutting, W. J. Cussen 133,700 

Fence, Clemmons and Westbrooks 133,831 

Fence, S. W. Hall 183,853 

Fence.flood, H.W. Nichols 133,795 

file, C.M.Nes 133,793 

filter, W. C. Pettljohn 133,720 

."•Ire escape, H. Marshall 133,870 

Fire arm, A.T. Freeman 183,770 

Fire arm cartridge ejector, C. S. Wells 183,732 

furnace, blast, J. Pattlson 133,718 

Gas retort, J. H. and J. Walker 133,731 

Gasworks pipe seal, W. Oartwrlght 133,756 

G»s, fuel for, J. C. Sellers 133,894 

Gas, apparatus for hydrocarbon, E. J. L. Calllot . . 133,829 

Gate.H. Z. Mast 133,788 

Gate.W. B. Smith 133,807 

Gelatine, manufacture of , B. F. Shaw 183,896 

Handle, tool, S.W.Weatherhead 133,908 

l larness pad, Lovett and Lef evre 138,786 

Harvester, binding, H. H. Brldenthal, Jr 183,744 

Heater, sad Iron, T. Hagerty 133,852 

Hinge, gate, J. Miller 133,715 

Hinge, spring, A.Crawford 133,699 

Hinge machine, L.P.Summers 183,903 

Hinges, expelling Joint pins from.W. H. H.Barton 133,821 

aorses, boot for, J. Fennell 133,768 

Hose, hydraulic, A. S. Llbby 133,785 

lick, lifting, F. S. Smith 133,728 

•Jewelers' stock, making, T. Dlebold, Jr 133,835 

Tewelry, manufacture of , S. Cottle 183,762 

Journal box, J. H. Hay ward 133,776 

iCey, electric, J. Olmsted 183,797 

Knife sharpener, etc., J. J.Mason 133,711 

Knobs, attaching, C . S. Redstock 133,889 

i-amp shade holder, O. N. Perkins 133,885 

.'.athes, tool holder for, W. Coulter 133,883 

Leather, seam for, E. Shaw 133,897 

! ,eather belting, Clark and Slemmer 133,698 

Lime bin, J. Smith 133,729 

Loom, J.Lyall 133,868 

Looms, take up for, C. Gahren... 133,845 

Marble planing machine, G. A. Haley 133,704 

Meat compressing utensil, E. Mlngay 133,791 

Mill, elder, N.Eaton 133,840 

Mill, flour, W.B.Allen 133,819 

Mill, rolling, G.Fritz 133,771 

Mining coal, machine for, H. Spear 133,900 

Mold for casting, W. B. Robinson 183,801 

Movement, J. L. & D. H. Coles (reissue) 5,178 

Mowing machine thill, O. A. Hlllman 133,706 

S'all, picture, C. B. Jenkins 183,778 

tfut lock.F. A. Bishop 133,694 

JTut fastening, S. A. Todd 133,812 

Nut fastening, M.F.McIntyer 138,873 

Oils, extracting, G. G. Perclval 133,719 

Organ, cabinet, H.N. Goodman 133,851 

Paddle wheel, W, P. Walker 133,905 

caper weight? J. B. Wilson 133,912 

S'aper pasting machine, J.M.Welch 133,909 

1'arer, apple, W. A. C. Oaks 133,796 

I 'each stoner, W. D. Hatch 183,855 

Pen and pencil calender, T. B. Briggs 183,690 

Picture frame, C. H. Hutchinson 188,707 

Pins, wooden, Watson, Kingsbury & King 183,907 

Pipes, cement, J. A. Mlddleton 133,875 

?lpes, cement, J. A. Mlddleton 133,874 

Pitcher, Ice, E. A. Dodge : 133,837 

Pitman connection, Mahoney & Geller 133,869 

Planter, corn, J. McGlnnls 133,789 

Planter, corn, W.T. F. Smith 138,808 

Planter, hand corn, S. G.Jones 133,709 

Clanter, etc., C. G. Wilson 133,911 

Platform, stove f oot, J. Easterley 183,766 

Plow, F.Reese 133,722 

Plow, A. Sanborn 133,802 

Plow clevis, F.Reese..... 133,799 

Plow, cotton, H. C. Godfrey 133,854 

Plow for railways, snow, J. S. Munson 133,792 

Plowshare, B. Harvey 133,854 

Poke, animal, T. J. Dlckerson 133,765 

Poke, animal, J.N. Wallls 133,815 

Printing, photo-mechanical, E.Edwards 133,701 

Propeller, chain, J.Neumann 133,794 

Propulsion of vessels, L. Chase 183,758 

Pump, steam, Gardner, RanBon & Martin 183,847 

Pump valve, J. Norman 133,860 

liack, dry goods, D. Kelser 133,781 

flags, breaking or tearing, M.Marshall 133,787 

Kailroad rail, A. A. Heln 133,777 

I'.allroad rail Joint, J. Adams 133,818 

Hallway track clearer, P. I. Schopp 133,726 

Railway snow plow, J. S. Munson 133,792 

Kakes, clearer bar for horse, D. E. Bristol 133,745 

Rivet, J. E. Wootten 138,737 

Uoll for lumber, feed. W. P. Hale 133,775 

Roll for grinding surfaces, O. I. Foster 133,843 

Rubber nuts to bolts, applying, J. Mlnetree 133,716 

Rulerand blotter, combined, J. E. Eaton 133,839 

■'ash, sheet metal window, H. & G. Zlelecke 133,740 

■.aw, A. P. Sproul 133,810 

inw, C. N. Brown 138,828 

.aw gumming machine, Case & Meredith 133,830 

iaw setting device, C. T. Shoemaker 133,727 

Scraper, T. Ripley 133,890 

•scraper, earth, Bowen & Hanna 133,825 

*crew fan, reversible, W. H. Goyne 138,772 

-jewing machine, R. Chandler 183,757 

Sewing machine, O. Venner 133,814 

.-'owing machine cover, G. Gardener 133,846 

dewing machine guide, A.Douglas, (reissue) 5,180 

sewing machine power, Cleveland & Todd 133,760 

dewing machine attachment, E. Stewart 133,901 

Sowing machine feed, J.L.& D.H.Coles, (reissue) 5,177 

Sewing machine slide, E. P. West 133,733 

»lngle machine, R. Smith 133,730 

Shoes, goring, Gardiner & Goodwin 133,703 

Shutter fastening, F. Doepke 133,838 

yoda water apparatus, W. Gee 153,848 

Sotes, trimming, etc., S. II. Hodges, (relssne) 5,183 

spark arrester, Kearney & Tronaon, (reissue) 5,184 

(pissing frama, H.McE. Ward 136,811 



Staff, miller's red, G.H. Carpenter 133,696 

Stair rod, P. Miles *.... 138,816 

Steam generator, D. Renshaw 183,728 

Steam generator, E. Bayard 133,743 

Stone, artificial, M.T.Hagen 183,774 

Stone, artificial, E.L. Ransome 133,887, 133,888 

Sugar, compacting, A. F. W. Partz : 183,884 

Telegraph, electric, M. G. Farma, (reissue)... 5,181 

Tenoning machine, E. W. Roff 183,724 

Textile material, cutting, A. Warth, (reissue).... 5,186 

Thill coupling, S.Keller.... 133,782 

Tire, steel, J. J. Young 133,739 

Tobacco hanger, J. Carrier 133,755 

Transplanting machine, J. M. Gilbert 133,849 

Trap, Insect, C. W. Curtis 133,763 

Trap, Insect, J. Dlldlne 133,836 

Truck, freight elevating, W. F. Morrow 133,777 

Type writing material, T. A. Edison 133,841 

Umbrella stand, E.Snedeker 183,809 

Vehicle wheel hub, W. A. Lewis 133,867 

Vehicles, lubricating axle for, L. H. Fisher 183,769 

Vehicles, axle box for, J. and W. Shackelton 133,895 

Vehicles, detaching horses from, S. Beck 133,822 

Vessels, raising sunken, H. F. Knapp 138,863 

Washing machine, G. L. WItsll 133,736 

APPLICATIONS FOR EXTENSIONS. 

- Applications have been duly filed, and arenow pending, 
for the extension of the following Letters Patent. Hear- 
ings upon the respective applications are appointed for 
the days hereinafter mentioned : 
23,152.— RnLlua Machine.— J. B. Blair. Feb. 19, 1873. 
23,246.— Meat Minoeb.— A. W. Hale. Feb. 26, 1878. 
23,309.— Envelopes.— S. E. Pettee. March 5, 1878. 
23,316.— Enlarging Photographs.— D.Shlve. Mar.5,1873. 
23,820.— Skimmer for Boilers.— A.M.Sprague. Mar.5,1873. 
26,361.— Pegging Machine.— A. C.Gallauue. Mar. 12,1873. 
24,098.— Sewing Machine.— P. S. Carhart. May 7, 1873. 

EXTENSIONSQRANTED. 

22,379.— Boring Machine.— G. F. Rice. 

22,381.— Brush.— R. Shaler. 

22,340.— Pegging Jack.— T. D. Bailey. 

DESIGNS~PATENTED. 

6,282.— Watch Case.— J. C. Dueber, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
6,283.— Crib Chair.— J. C.Hall, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
6,284.— Cooking Stove.— L. W. Harwood, Tray, N. T. 
6,285.— Match Stand.— C. H. Leggett, Elizabeth, N. J. 

TRADE MARKSllEGISTERED. 

1,080.— Liniment.— S.H.Kennedy & Co., Johnstown, N.T. 
1,081.— Sewing Machine.— Florence S. M. Co., Mass. 



YALDE OF PATENTS 

And How to Obtain Them. 




HOW TO 




Practical Hints to Inventors. 



ROBABLY no Investment of a small sum 
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and others, who have amassed Immense for- 
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This Is the 
closing in- 

OBTAIN Q/Ht&niJs*^ '■> 

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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 

Tlte Best Mechanical Paper in the World 

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BATES OF ADVERTISING. 
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Inside Page .------75 cents a line. 

Engravings may head advertisements at the same rateper 
line, by measurement, as the letter-press. 

THE SINGER M'F'G COMPANY, 172 to 194 Mott St. 
New York, March, 1870. 

John H. Lester, Agent for Lester's Patent Synovial 
Oil, 708 Broadway, New York:— The following is the 
result of a test of the comparative merits of Sperm Oil, 
Virgin, Chemical Oil, and Lester's Patent Synovial Oil, 
made during the three first months of the year of 1869: 

The Sperm Oil, at $2 per gallon, lubricated 2870 Sewing 
Machines running by steam power, at a high speed] 
about half an hour each. The Lester Patent Synovial 
Oil, for $1 per gallon, for 5828 Machines. The Oil has con- 
tinued uniform In quality up to this date. 

L. B. MILLER, Superintendent. 

The above company have used this oil every month, 
from above date. See statement on heavy machinery 
In next issue. 



A 



LCOTT TURBINE. — The new water 
_ __ wheel, patented November 26, 1872, by the sub- 
scriber, has been put In actual use and gives the best 
satisfaction. Licenses to manufacture on royalty or 
territorial rights will be Bold. Terms reasonable. Ad- 
dress T. ALCOTT & SON, Manufacturers of Turbine 
Wiitpv Wheels and other mill machinery. Mt. Holly, N. J. 



| u'i'i OF BOSTON. The Special COmtnis- 

V^ sion on Wooden Pavements give notice that they 
have completed their organization, and are ready to hear 
parties interested in this matter. 

They further give notice that the city has offered & 
prize of three hundred dollars ($300) "for the best essay 
on the most effectual method of preserving wood pave- 
ments from decay in this city," and that such essays may 
be handed to the Secretary of the Commission on or be- 
fore the first day of March, 1873. Each essay is to be a<> 
companied by the name of the writer, inclosed In & seated 
envelope; said envelope bearing some distinguishing 
mark or motto, and to be opened by the Commission 
only after the prize has been adjudged. 

For further Information, address 

J. M. JtfERUICK. 

59 Broad Street, Boston, 
. Dec. 26, 1873. Secretary, 



© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



January ii, 1873.] 



£ timMt %mmtm. 



29 



CAPITAL WANTED, to introduce. articles 
just patented. Address Box 11, Station C, N. Y. City. 



THE Proprietors of C. N. Goss patents, re- 
cently issued, for improvements In Horse Hay Rakes, 
wish to arrange with a few more parties to manufacture 
the best horse rake in the country, upon royalty or oth- 
erwise. Address F. G. BUTLER, Bellows Falls, Vt. 



JH. WHITE, Newark, N. J., Manufac- 
• turer of Tin, Zinc, Brass and Copper Spun Bot- 
tom Oilers, Children's Carriage Trimmings, Cowell Pat. 
Door and Gate Spring, &c. &c. Stamped, Cast and Spun 
Metal Wort, Dies, Tools, and Patterns to order. 



WANTED — A competent Superintendent 
for the Pattern Department of a large Architec- 
tural Iron "Works. He must >>e a good practical drafts- 
man, have goodadmlnistrative ability, andbe thoroughly 
conversant with the business. Address, with reference, 
SHICKLE, HARRISON & CO., Saint Louis, Mo. 



SUBSCRIBERS ZSF&Zb 

a year, the Scientific American and the Science of 
Health ($2.00). Address S. R.WELLS, 3S9Broadway,N.T. 



HOW IS YOUR HEALTH? 

If good, you are living right. If not, and you would be well 
and strong, study the Laws op Life and Health by read- 
ing the Science of Health, a new and thoroughly practi- 
cal Health Journal. Its teachings are based on HYGIENIC 
PRINCIPLES, promoting the best interests of the indi- 
vidual, the Nation, and the Race. The Science of 
Health is Independent, and seeks only to teach the 
reader "HOW TO LIVE'* 80 as to regain and preserve 
HEALTH. 

A GOOD NUMBER. 

The Science of Health for January contains mat- 
ters Interesting and important to all readers. Ladies 
should read "What My Corsets Cost Me;" Early Mar- 
riages will Interest both sexes; Holiday Dishes, What to 
Select and How to Cook, a timely article, looking to lux- 
urious and healthful food ; Dress of Uncivilized Women ; 
Three Classes of American Boys, with illustrations ; Pop- 
ular Physiology, with Illustrations ; Ague and Fever, the 
Cause and Cure; Scarlatina; Bronchitis; Health of 
Teachers ; Women Doctors. In answer to correspond- 
ents, we are told How to Feed the Baby; Grey Hairs; 
Sick Headache ; Bilious Fever and Ague ; Magnetic 
Waters ; Concluding with Excellent Health Laconics, 
touching Cold Feet; Headache; Cramps; Lumbago; 
Heartburn; Dyspepsia; Neuralgia; Palpitation; Impure 
Blood; Corns and Bunions; Bowel Complaints; Constl 
pation; Slpsp,etc. ; with remarks on "Pbateb and Med. 
icatjou ' making a capital number with which to^begln 
the now volume and the new year. Price 20 cents or $2 a 
year. Address S. R. WELLS, 389 Broadway, New York. 



r\ ALT FOUNDRY AND CANADA NUT 
VJT Works for Sale. Foundry and Machine Shop 30 
years established, doing an extensive business. Nut De- 
partment—Three Machines constantly employed. Motive 
Power Water. Splendid opening. Terms liberal. LUTZ 
& CO., Gait, Ontario, December, 1872. 



APPLETON'S JOUMAL, 

A Weekly Magazine of Popular High- 
class Literature. 



ENLARGED FOR 1873. 

Price, 10 cents per number; or $4.00 per annum In ad- 
vance.. Subscriptions received for Twelve or Six Months. 
New Subscribers for 1873, remitting by or before January 
1st, will receive the numbers for December, 1872, gratul- 
tou8ly,lncluding an extra Christmas number. 

Any person procuring Five Yearly Subscriptions, for 
weekly numbers, and remitting $20, will be entitled to a 
Copy" for one year gratia. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

549 & 551 BROADWAY, N. Y. 



US; JA/V/liuGMt wanger; 

t CHEMISES & MPORTEfRS. 
Address 5.5 Gedar.'S* New/York 

SOLOetE-GLAS^S & SILICATXS* 
'OXIDE 0F 5 <MAfcJGANESE FOR ST&Ly 
TGLAS S :S£: PATENT >. DRYER S v 

FLUORSPAR ;FELS PAR , FLINT* 
xO^lCKeU-SALTSy ASBE : STOS;,v \ 
BLACK-LEAD V METALS ,'&C &CT 



S ILEK AND'FERMENtED. LIQUORS^ 



jL^Ovj x sa W1NU i.lAOHINE — best •ut— 
Jj Cuts very fast, as smooth as a plane. S. C. HILLS, 
51 Courtlandt Street, New York. 



JUDSON S 

PATENT LATHE CHUCK. 

Thestronge3tChuckmade of the same size and weight. 
Constructed on entirely new principles, each jaw being 
Independent in action, and so arranged that the pressure 
of the screw towards the center also presses the jaw 
firmly against the face of the Chuck, holding the work 
more securely than any other Chuck now in use with the 
same power expended on the screw. 

DWIGHT ROBERTS, Manufacturer, 
Cor. Wythe Ave. & Hewes St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



WANTED— Several earthenware troughs, 
G ft. long, 2 f t.wlde, 10 in, deep, to hold diluted acid. 
Apply to the Superintendent Gold and Stock Telegraph 
Company, 61 Broadway, New York City. 



The TRADE WAGOK 




A WAGON INTENDED FOR GENERAL PURPOSES. 

WEIGHS BUT 400 POUNDS. 

As finished ready to paint and trim. Inquire of your car* 
.riage maker, or the ottly manufacturers, 

S. N. BROWN & CO., op Dayton, Ohio, 



^K f A ^^ftP^dnyt Affnntiwanled! AlleluMMofwortttnitpeo. 

$t) 10 tjl^vplp.oreftliei Bcx.yoims orolrl, niiiko mote iiunii-yiit 
work for us In their ap«ra moments ora,ll ths wmo than »l any tiling 
<*•*. FaxUciiiMafrM, Aitrtrw Q. Btlaaoa * Co.. PortUnd. lUlflfc 



Andrew's Patents. 

Noiseless, Friction Grooved, or Geared Holst- 
ers, suited to every want. 

Safety Store Elevators. Prevent Accident, if 
Rope, Belt, and Engine break. 

Smoked-Burning Safety Boilers. 

Oscillating Engines, Double and Single* 1-2 to 
lOO-Horse power. _ 

Centrifugal Pumps, IOO to 100,000 Gallons 
per Minute, Best Pumps in the World, pass 
itfuri, Sand, Gravel, Coal, Grain, etc., with- 
out injury. 

All Jjight, Simple, Durable, and Economical. 

Send for Circulars. 

WM. D. ANDREWS & BRO., 

414 Water Street, New York. 



100 YEAR ALMANAC. FOR 50 CENTS 

we send postpaid an Almanac givtngevery Year, Month, 
Week and Bay of the Century, also a Pocket Calendar for 
1873. Extra inducements to Agents. Address 

GEORGE A. HEARD & CO., Boston, Mass. 




TURBINE WATER WHEELS. 

The Oldest and Newestf All others, 
only Imitations of eaclfyfctherin their 
strife after complications to confuse 
the public. We do not boast, but 
quietly excel them all in- staunch, re- 
reliable, economical power. Beauti- 
ful pamphlet free. GEO. TALLCOT, 
96 Liberty Street, New York. 
Gearing, Shafting. 



Upright Engine andTubular Boiler (4) Hobse 
Poweb, with all Trimmings— also, (10) Hosse 
Poweb. Send for circulars. VARIETY IRON 
WORKS COMPANY, Cleveland, Ohio. 



piNGINNATI BRASS WORKS^Engineera 

\_/ and Steam-fitters' Brass Work. Best quality. Send 
for Catalogue. F. LTJNKENHEIMER, Prop. 



WHALEN TURBINE. No risks to purchaser 
N.BallstonSpa, N.Y 



Pamphlet sent free. Seth Whales, . 



1832. SCHENCK'S PATENT. 1871. 

WOODWORTH PLANERS 

And Re-Sawing Machines, Wood and Iron Working Ma- 
chinery, Engines, Boilers, etc. JOHN B. SCHENCK'S 
SONS, Matteawan, N. Y. and 118 Liberty St., New York 



OOD-WORKING MACHINERY GrEN- 

, , erally. Specialties, Woodworth Planers and Rich- 
ardson's Patent improved Tenon Machines. Nob. 24 and 
26 Central, corner Union St., Worcester.MaBS. 

WITHERBYRUGG & RICHARDSON. 



w 




?j WhbuuH'i 

tf*0;N 



THE Union Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
The attention of Engineers and Architects Is called 
to ourlmproved Wrought-iron Beams and Girders (pat- 
ented), in which the compound welds between the stem 
and flanges, which have proved so objectionable In the 
old mode of manufacturing, are entirely avoided, we are 

Erepared to furnish all sizes at terms as favorable as can 
eoDtained elsewhere. For descriptive lithographaddress 
Carnegie, Kloman & Co, Union IronMills, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



FOR SALE— A second hand Hewes & Phil- 
lips Steam Engine, 13 in. cylinder, 86 In. stroke ; will 
be ready for delivery 20th Dec. : previous to which time 
may be seen running at the Singer Mf*g Co's Silk Mill, 
Bank St., Newark, N. J. 



LADY AND GENTLEMEN AGENTS 
WANTED— To sell the Protean Button Hole Lan- 
cet and Sewing Machine Thread Cutter. 25 cents. Needle 
Threading Thimble, 25 cents. Morocco Needle Book, 50 
cents. Samples mailed on receipt of price. SlOperday, 
Bure. H. W. HINMAN 599 Broadway, New York. 



WIND OW GARDE NING. 

Free, Free! SEND FOR A SPECIMEN COPY. 

The Ladies' Floral Cabinet.— A beautiful new Home Paper, devoted to 
Flowers, Windaw Gardening, and PlctorialHome Reading. Exqulsitelyillustrated. 
Specimen copies free to every flower-lover in the country. Only 75c. a year, and a 
package of Flower Seeds free. Club agents wanted to canvass every town. 

Window Gardening.— A new Book, superbly illustrated, devoted to cul- 
ture of Plants, Bulbs, and Flowers for in-doors; the handsomest ever published. 
Price, ¥1.50. Book-stores have it. 

Every Woman Her Own Flower Gardener. By Daisey Eyebright. 
A charming new Book on Flower and Out-door Gardening for Ladles. Price, 50c, 
or bound In cloth, $1. 

The Ladies' Cabinet Initial Note Paper, rose or violet-tinted; your 
own initial. Superb novelty; handsome present; highly perfumed; attractive 
chromo on each box. Price, 50c. a box. 

IOO Papers at Club Rates* Every paper, 25c. to 50c. less than full price. 
Send stamp for List. 

The Horticulturist.— A handsomelyillustrated Magazine, devoted to Archi- 
tecture, Flowers, Gardening, Fruits, and Cottages. On trial 8 months, SOc. ; 
6mo nths, $1 ; 1 year, 82. 

Illustrated Prospectus and Premium List of all the above free on 
receipt of stamp. 

HENRY T. WILLIAMS* Proprietor, 

5 Beekman Street, New York 




Machinery, 



Wood and Iron "Working of every kind. Leather and 
RubberBelUng, Emery YY heels, Babbitt Metal, &c. 
GEO. EL ACE & CO., 121 Chambers & 103 Keade Sts, N.Y 



Machinists' Tools. 

The largest and most complete assortments thlscoun 
try, manufactured by 

NEW YORK STEAM ENGINE COMPANY, 
121 Chambers & 103 Reade Streets, New York. 



Cold Rolled Shafting. 

Best and most perfect Shafting ever made, constantly 
on hand in large quantities, furnished In any lengths up 
to 24 ft Also, Pat. Coupling and Self-oiling adjustable 
Hangers. GEORGE PLACE & CO., 

121 Chambers & 103 Reade Streets, New York. 



Sturtevant Blowers. 

Of every size and description, constantly on hand. 
GEORGE PLACE & CO., 
121 Chambers & 103 Reade Streets, New York. 



WILDER.' 



Pat. Punching Presses 

For Railway Shops, Agricultural Machine Shops, Boile 
Makers, Tinners, Brass Manufacturers, Silversmiths, &c 
Warranted the best produced. Send for Catalogue, &c. 
NEW YORK STEAM ENGINE CO., 
121 Chambers & 103 Rea de 



/\rilTC<? SAFETY HOISTING 

U L JL%5 Machinery. 

OTIS, BROS. & CO.. 

NO. 348 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



PUMPING MACHINERY 

INDEPENDENT 

BOILER FEEDER. 

Works Hot and Cold Water. 
LARGE AND SPLENDID 

Illustrated Catalogue, 

Sent Free on Applicat ion. 

Cone & llwelf Maifft Company, 

118, 120 & 122 East Second St., 

CINCINNATI, O, 





IMPROVED FOOT LATHES 
Slide Rests, Hand Planers, Scroll Saws 
Superior to all others. Selling every where. 
Catalogues free. 

N. H. BALDWIN, 

Laconla, N.H. 



irt» 



The Simplest, Cheapest, and Best In use ! Has but one 
needle! A Child can Run It. Agents wanted in bvbby 
town. Manf. Florence S. M. Co. Send for circular and 
Sample Stocking, to 
HINKXEY KNITTING MACH. CO., Bath, Me. 



WOODBURY'S PATENT 

Planing and Matching 

and Molding Machines, Gray & Wood's Plane re, Self -oiling 
Saw Arbors, and other wood working machinery. 

* '-"'■ 91 Liberty street, N. Y. ; 



S. A. WOODS, 
Send for Circulars. 



Ibl budbury street, Boston. 



Buy Barber's Bit Brace. 




RISDON'S improved: 

Turbine Water Wheel 

Is Cheap, simple, strong and durable ; 
upon a test has yielded over 86 percent 
at full gate, and over 78 per cent at 
eight-tenths gate. 
Send for circular to 

T. H. RISDON & CO., 
Mount Holly, New Jersey. 



NEW PATTERNS. 

MACHINISTS' TCOI.S— all sizes— at low prices. 
E. & R. J. GOULD, 97 to 113 N. J. R. R. Ave., 

Newark, N.J. 



B 



URDON IRON WORKS.— Manufacturers 



of Pumping Engines for Water Works, High and 

Engl] . . . . 

.... „ar Mills, screw, jjever.Urop.i „ 

Presses, Machinery in general. _ HUBBARD & WHIT- 



low Pressure Engines, Portable Engines and_ Boilers of 



all kinds, Sugar Mills, Screw, Lever, Drop, and Hydrau Ik 
Presses, Machinery in general, jjrj" u ""' Yi T "' 

TAKER, 10 Front Bt., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



GREAT REDUCTION IN PRICES 

OF LE COUNT'S PATENT HOLLOW 
LATHE DOGS, and hie Machinist Clamps of both 
Iron and Steel. 
1 set of 8 dogs, from % to 2 inch, 16-50. 



His expanding Mandril is a first ctaee tool, which has 
long been needed by every Machinist. 
Send for latest circular. 

W. LE COUNT, South Norwalk, Conn. 



FELT. 



Cheapest, best, and most durable noii- 
conductorknown. BOILERFELTING 
WORKS, 46 Courtlandt St., New York. 



WHAT NEXT ? The great Juvenile Magazine, SO cents 
a year with a *1 Chromo free. Specimen 8 cents. JOHN 
B. ALDEN, Publisher, Chicago. 



MACHINERY, i ! 



NEW and 2d-HAND.-- 

Send for Circular. Ch'as.PLACE 
CO., 60 Vesey St., New York 



NVENTORS' NATIONAL UNION. E. H. 
_ GIBBS & CO., 178 Broadway, New York. Patents 
Sold on Commission. Send for Circular. 



ThobeattermBOffered. AGENTS WANTED for ExplorationBia 

AFRICA 

Dr. LIvlnsBtcme discovered. The HERALD-STANLEY 
Expedition complete. Large oetuvo now ready. Outlit 81.00 
UNION PUBLISHING CO., Cblcago.JPhila., or Springfield, Masa. 



WOOD AND IRON Working Machinery 
Gage Lathes, Cabinet Makers' Machinery, Shaping 
Machines, Band Saws, Shingle and Stave Machinery, 
Band Saws, Cable and Sheaves for transmitting power 
Engine Lathes, Upright Drills. Key Seat Machines, etc. 
Hum. Catl. free. f. R. BAILEY & VAIL, Lockport, k. T. 



PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE. 

HALL BROTHERS 
Are prepared to intro- 
duce their " System of 
Sprinklers" into Mills, 
Factories, &c, at short 
notice. Call and see a 
practical operation of 
same at their works, 

36 CHARDON STREET, 



a 



BUERK'S WATCHMAN'S TIME DE 
TECTOE.— Important for all large Corporation! 
and Manufacturing concerns— capable of controlling 
with the utmost accuracy the motion of a watchman oi 
patrolman, as the same reaches different stations of hU 
beat. Send for a Circular. J.E.BUERK, 

P. O. Box 1,057 Boston, Moss. 
N. B.— This detector la covered by two U. S. Patents 
Parties using or selling these instruments without an 
thorlty f rom me will be dealt with according to law. 



BICHARDSON, MERIAM * CO. 
Manufacturers of the latest Improved Patent Dan- 
and Woodworth Planing Machines, Matching, Sash 
and molding, Tenoning, Mortising, Boring, shaping, Ver- 
tical, and Circular Re-sawing Machines, Saw Mills, Saw 
Arbors, Scroll Sawa^Ballway, Cut-off, and Rip-saw Ma- 
chines, Spoke and Wood Turning Lathes, and various 
other kinds of Wood-working Machinery. Catalogues 
and price lists pent on application. Manufactory, Wor- 
cester, Mass. Warehouse, 107 Liberty st, New York. 17 1 



SHINGLE AND BARREL MACHINERY.— 
Improved Law's Patent Shingle and Heading Ma- 
chine, simplest and best in use. Also, Shingle Heading 
and Stave Jointers, Stave Equalizers, Heading Planers 
Turners, &c. Address TREVO B & Co., Lockport, N. Y. 



PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES, COMBIN 
lng the maximum of efficiency, durability and econ- 
omy .with the minimum of weight and price. They are 
widely and favorably known, more than 900 helngin 
use. All warranted satisfactory or no sale. Descriptive 
circulars sent on application. Address 

J. C. HOADLEY A CO., Lawrence, Mass. 
Liberty St., New York. 



RIVERVIEW Military Academy, Pough- 
keepsle, N. Y. A thorough-going school for boys. 



Niagara Steam Pump. 



CHAS. B. HARDICK, 

23 Adams St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



P. BLAISDELL & Co., 

MANUFACTURERS OF FIRST CLASS 
MACHINISTS' TOOLS. Send for Circular. 
Jackson St., Worcester, Mass. 



Milling Machines. 

Q TANDARD, UNIVERSAL, INDEX, CAM- 
Q CUTTING and PLAIN, in every variety, of unequal- 
led design and first-class workmanship. Send for illus- 
trated Catalogue to the Brainabd Milling Machinx 
Co., 11 Femberton Square. Boston. Works at Hyde Park. 



FOOT BATHES.— T. Shanks, Baltimore, Md. 



You ask WHY we can sell firs* 
Class 1 Octave Pianos tor $290't* 
We answer — Itcosts less than $300 
I to make any $600 Piano soltf 
through Agents, all of i\ liora mak« 
IOO per ct. profits We hav« 
mo Agents, but stiip direct to fami 
lies at Factory price, and warrant 
. . _ _ 5 Years. Send for illustrated cir- 
cular, in which we refer to over 500 Bankers, Merchants, 
Ac. (some of whom you may know), using our Pianos, 
In 44 States and Territories. Please state where you saw 
this notice. 

U.S. Piano Co., 865 Broadway. N.Y. 




BOSTON, 



WOODWARD'S COUNTRY HOMES. 



~i f A DESIGNS and PLANS fo? 
I I'll I Houses of moderate cost 
xtf V/ |1.50,_post paid. 
_ ORANGE JUDD & CO., 

Pt/blishbks, 245 Broadwav, N. York 
IT^~Send for Catalogue o'f all booki 
on Architecture, Agriculture, Flelc 
Sports and the Horse 




LATHE CHUCKS— HORTON'S PATEN7 
from 4 to 36 Inches. Also for ear wheels. Addre» 
E. HORTON & SON, Windsor Locks, Conn. 



Iron City and Siberian Iron Worts. 

EOGEBS & BURCHFIELD, 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

Refined Charcoal and Best Bloom Sheet Iron, Brands 
Apollo and Siberian. Specialties: Stamping, Button, 
Trunk, Lock, Shovel, Tea Tray, Show Card, Tagger, and 
all other kinds of fine Sheet, from 12 to 40 gauge. Cut to 
size, as required by the trade. Equally to any imported 
Office ana Warehouse, 108 Water St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 





MOLDING, MORTISING, 
TENONING & SHAPING 

MACHINES) 

BAND SAWS, 

SCROLL SAWS, 

Planinc & Matching 

MACHINES, &c, 

For Kaileoad, Car, and Agbi 
cultural Shops. &c, 
I^~ Superior to any in use. 

J. A. FAY & CO. 

ClNOISXATI, Ohio. 



WANTED 

MACHINISTS used to first class work. 

Steady, reliable men can find [good pay and steady 
work at Passaic, N. J. Address NEW YORK STEAM 
ENGIKE COMPANY, Passaic, N.J. 



12 Samples sent by mall for 50 cts., that retail quick for 
$10. K. L. WOLCOTT, 181 Chatham Square, New York. 



■RPTPT7 PPT?QQ1?Q For Fire and red brick 
UlViL/lV rX\>£iOO£iO manufactured at No. 809 
35th St., Philadelphia. Established 1844. S. P. MILLER. 



MATHUSHEK 

1U HAN0 MF'G CO. 

New Haven, Conn. 



The most durable pianos. 
The most powerful tone. 
The finest touchandactlon 
The purchasers delighted. 
The pamphlets Bent free. 



MANNING'S E0LT CUTTER, Powei 
or Hand. Price, Including Taps and Dies Cut 
ting Bolts M"a IJi", 9 slzeB, $130. Counter Shaft with 
ConePulley,*35. Send for circular to H. L. MANNING, 
ManTr, 113 Liberty St., N.Y. Agents, W. L. Chase & Co., 
N. T. ; Keed & Bowen, Boston ; Hitchcock & Walker,Chl- 
cago ; Gaff, Gray & Gordon, Cincinnati ; Kelley, Howell & 
Ludwlg, Philadelphia. 



TO THE WORKING CLASS,male or female, 
(60 a week guaranteed. Respectable employment at 
home, day or evening; no capital required; full Instruc- 
tions andvaluable package of goods to start with sent 
free by mall. Address .with 6 cent return stamp, 
M. YOUNG & CO., 16 Courtlandt St., New 



Sew York. 



Purchasers of Saw Mills 

are notified that we have commenced suits In the TT. S. 
Circuit Courts against Cole, Btjgbee & Co., Lebanon, 
N. H., Luke Buzzell, St. Johnsbury, Vt.^andF. C. Cas- 
dee & Co., New York, (selling agents of Belknap, Ely & 
Co., Northfleld.Vt.) for infringements of patents granted 
Dennis Lane for improvements In Circular Saw Mills. 
The oubllc Is cautioned against buying Mills or Set 
Works manufactured and sold by the above named par- 
ties, or any other, In violation of our rights, as we shall 
prosecute Infringers to the full extent of the law, and 
hold purchasers of Infringing Mills or Set Work responsi- 
ble for the use of the same. 

Our patents cover Improvements In head-blocks gene- 
rally, setting devices, dogging devices, tapering devices, 
and mctloual set works. 

Descriptive pamphlets sent to any address, and coplet 
of Lane's patents tarnished upon request. 

LAME, PITKIN A BROCK, 

Montpeller, Vermont, 



© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. 



30 



^(xmtxik %mmtm. 



[January n, 1873- 



^tantismtntt. 



Advertisements Will be admitted on this page at the rate of 
81*00 P^T lint for each insertion. Engrvings may 
head advertisements at the same rat* ver line by meas- 
urement, as the letter-press. 




SCIENCE RECORD 

FOR 

1873. 

A. Compendium of the Scientific Progress and Discove- 
ries of the Preceding Year. Illustrated with Steel 
Plate and other Engravings. 600 pages, 
octavo. Prlce,$2. 

THIS NEW AND SPLENDID BOOK will 
he published about January 15,1873. ItBcontents will 
embrace the most Interesting Facts and Discoveries in 
the various Arts and Sciences that have transpired during 
the preceding year, exhibiting in one view the General 
Progreas of the "World in the following Departments: 
1.— CHEMISTRY AND METALLURGY. — Embracing 
accounts of all the chief Chemical Discoverk b, Im- 

Frovements, and Processes introduced in the various 
tidustrial Arts, with engravings. Improvements in 
the Processes of Working Iron, Steel, Lead, Copper, 
Gold, Silver, and the various Metals, with engrav- 
ings of New Apparatus, descriptions of New Alloys, 
and much other valuable Information. 
3.-MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING. — Embracing 
descriptions of New Mechanical Processes, Inven- 
tions, Public Works, Improvements In Steam En- 
gines, Boilers, Motors, Railways, Canal Navigation, 
Naval Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil 
Engineering, Building, New Mechanical Inventions, 
with many engravlngB. 
8.— ELECTRICITY, LIGHT, HEAT, SOUND.— Embrac- 
ing the latest Improvements in Telegraphy and Tele- 
graph Engineering, Improvements m Galvanic Bat- 
teries, Electric Engines, New and Useful Applications 
of Electricity in the Arts— with engravings. 

4.— TECHNOLOGY.— Embracing New and Useful Inven- 
tions and Discoveries relating to THE ARTS; Im- 
provements in Photography, Printing, New Imple- 
ments, New Machinery. New Processes, New RecipeB, 
Improvements pertaining to Textile Industry, Weav- 
ing, Dyeing, Coloring, and the various branches of 
Industrial Labor, with accounts of New Industrial 
Products, Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral— with en- 
gravings. 

•6.— BOTANY AND HORTICULTURE.— Descriptions of 
New Plants, Trees, Shrubs and Flowers, Introduced 
during the preceding year, with New, Useful and In- 
teresting Facts In relation to Cultivation, Propaga- 
tio n, etc.— with engravln gs. 

■«.— AGRICULTURE.— New and Useful Information In 
the branches of Agriculture, with Notices of New 
Processes, New Implements, New Plants, Products 
etc. Improved modes of Treating Soils, Preparing 
ManureB, Information concerning Domestic Animals, 
their Diseases, Treatment, etc.— with engravlngB. 

'7.— RURAL AND HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY.- -The Lat- 
est Information concerning Building Materials, Im- 
provements thereon, Improvements in Houses, Fur- 
niture, Lighting, Heating, Ventilation, Laundry Pro- 
cessesana Apparatus, Valuable Information relating 
to Food, Its Preparation, Preservation, etc., Including 
New and Valuable Recipes, and a great variety 01 
Miscellaneous Information pertaining to the House- 
hold—with engravlngB 

'I.— MATERIA MEDICA, THERAPEUTICS, HYGIENE. 
—Exhibiting the progress of Medical Science in vari- 
ous branches. New Medicinal Preparations, New 
Health Inventions and Appliances, with much Inter- 
esting Information. 

•9.— NATURAL HISTORY AND ZOOLOGY.— The latest 
discoveries In Microscopy, Implements and Applian- 
ces In Microscopic Investigation, Scientific Explora- 
tions, Physiology, Anatomy, Discoveries relating to 
Pre-htstoric Man, Interesting Information and Dis- 
coveries relating to Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, 
and Insects— with engravings. 

■•0 & 11.— METEOROLOGY, TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS, 
GEOGRAPHY.— Accounts of Interesting Atmosphe- 
ric and Terres trial Phenomena,Travels, Explorations 
and Discoveries, Including descriptions of the Great 
National Park— with engravings. 

A.--GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY.-The Latest and 
most Interesting Geological Investigations and Re- 
ports, Accounts of New Minerals, New Mineral Dis- 
coveries, Fossils, and Remarkable Phenomena. 

fi.— ASTRONOMY.— Recent Interesting DlBcoverleB and 
information relating to the Planets, Comets, Meteor- 
ites, Aurora, the Sun, with Reports of Astronomical 
Phenomena, Progress, New Instruments, etc. 

14 & 15.— BIOGRAPHY, NECROLOGY.— Biographies of 
distinguished Men of Science, with steel-plate and 
other Portraits. Notices of Prominent Men con- 
nected with Arts and Sciences, recently deceased, 
with Portraits. 

Every person whodesiresto be well informed concern- 
Ingthe PfogreBs of the Arts and Sciences should have a 
copy of Science Record for 1873. It will be a most In- 
teresting and valuable Book, and should have a place In 
every Household, In every Library. 

60U pages, Octavo. HandBomely Bound. Many Engrav- 
ings. Price, $2. 

Sent by mall to all parts of the country, on receipt of 
the price. A liberal discount to the trade and to can- 
vassers. For sale at all the principal Bookstores. 

MUNN & CO., Publishers, 

37 Park Row, New York City. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be sent one year 
ne copy of SCIENCE RECORD FOR 1873, on 
t Of $4-59. 

ENCE RECORD FOR 1873, uniform with the 
Price $2. 



JERY 



Grinders, Pnt'd 1869. 

Unequaled for the sterling 
quality of their materials 
and workmanship, the du- 
rability of every part. Any 
desired make of solid 
Wheels furnished, care- 
fully fitted to the machine, turned perfectly true, and 
started at ttie maker's guaranteed speed. Grinders for 



all purposes, ready for Immediate use, that can be run 
Itn perfect safety. Address 

AMERICAN TWIST DRILL CO., Woonsocket, R. L 



BUILDERS 



Send stamp for our new illus 
, rated catalogue. A. J. BICK- 
1 KJCLL & CO 27 Warren St .N.Y. 



A. S. CAMERON & CO., 

ENGINEERS, 

Works, foot of East 23d 
street, New York City. 

Steam Pumps, 

Adapted to everyposBlble 
duty. 
Send for a Price List. 




ISAAC S. CASSIN, Engineer, late Chief En- 
gineer of the Philadelphia Waterworks, No. 431 Race 
St., Philadelphia, Pa. Water Works constructed, Surveys 
and Estimates made, Drawings and Specifications, and 
all kinds of HydraullcMachlnery and materlalsf urnlshed. 



MA CHINISTS' TO OLS 

NEW PATTERNS. 

ENGINE LATHES, IKON PLANEKS: 

RADIAL DKILLS, BORING MILLS: 

CAR WHEEL & AXLE MACHINERY, &c. 

NILES TOOL WORKS, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 



J 



MAHOGANY 



B0SEW00D, FBEWCH WALNUT, SATIS! 
WOOD, HUNGARIAN ASH, CEDAR, ETC, 

Large and Choice Stock Foreign and Domestic Woods, In 

VENEERS, BOARDS, AND PLANK. 

Imported and Manufactured by 

GEORGE W. READ & CO., 

Office, Mill and Yard, 186 to 200 Lewis tit., cor. 6th, E. R. 
Branch Salesroom— 170 & 172 Centre St., N. Y. 
Orders by mail promptly and faithfully executed. 
|£#~Send for Catalogue and Price List. 



MCNAB & HARLIN 

Manufacturing Co., Manufacturers of 

BRASS C0CK8 

for steam, water and gas. 

Wrought Iron Pipe and Fittings. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Price-list furnished on appll 
cation. 56 JOHN STREET NEW YORK. 



TRON PLANERS, ENGINE LATHES, 

_L Drills, and other Machinists' Tools, of superior qual- 
ity, on hand, an d nnlshing. For sale low. For Descrip- 
tion and Price address NEW HAVEN MANUFACTUR- 
ING CO., New Haven, Conn. 



B. F. STURTEVANT, 

PATENTEE AND SOLE MANUFACTURER OF 

PRESSURE BLOWERS & EXHAUST FANS 

'-■■ 72 SUDBURY STREET BOSTON, MASS. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE .ILLUSTRATED WITH 4? O ENGRAVINGS 



>OR SALE, CHEAP— Tools, Patterns, Ma- 
. chine Shop and Foundry, 8x16 in. Engine and Boilers, 
Wood Working Machinery, &c. First Class, nearly new. 



fr'or List and Prices, app^ly to 



L. ELDER, McMlnnvllle. Tenn. 



The fireside friend, a monthly magazine, 
containing stories, poems, travelB, adventures, &c., 16 
pages each month. Caprice 25 cents a year._jEfl 

Specimen copies sent free. 

Address W. S. SHORT, Berea, Ohio. 




THE 

AMERICAN 

Mine Water Wheel 

Has recently been subjected to thor- 
ough testsoy James Emerson, Hol- 
yoke, MasB., showing higher average 
resultB than any Turbine "Wheel ever 
known. Afull report maybe obtain- 
ed of STOUT, 'MILES & TEMPLE, 
Dayton, Ohio. 




Fasten your windows 

WITH THE 

REISINGER 

BABHLOCK & SUPPORT 

No spring, no muti- 
lation of sash; cheap, 
durable, easily ap- 
plied— holds saBh at 
any place desired, 
and a Belf-faBtener 
when sash 1b down. 
Send for circular. 
Circular and bIx cop- 
per-bronzed Locks, 
as samples, sent to 

any addreBB in the 

W0^l United States, post- 
- . | paid, on receipt of 
- =gg ntty cents. Liberal 
.__ inducements to the 
IHH trade. Agents want- 
==j ed everywhere. 
^^ H. C. Demming, 

Treasurer. 
Box 411, 

Harrisburg, Pa. 



BEACH'S Scroll Sawing Machine,Improved 
guaranteed the cheapest and best In use. Thirty 
days' trial given. Send for illustrated circular and price 
list. Address H. L. BEACH, 90 Fulton St., New York. 




CHAMPION SPRING MATTRESS— The 
latest and best improvement. Do you want a 
healthy and comfortable bed? Here it is. The softest, 
easiest, cheapest, most popular, and durable Spring Bed 
in market. Sold by all leading dealers. No stock com- 
plete without It. wholly composed of tenacious tem- 
pered steel springs, so united that the pressure is equally 
distributed. Easily moved or carried about the house. 
Can be lifted, turned, or rolled up like a blanket. Both 
sides alike. No frame, no wooden slats. May be used on 
floor without bedstead. No under bed required. Needs 
only half thickness of hair mattress. Warranted noise- 
less. Any sizes made to order. Send for pictorial circu- 
lar. Retail price of double bed, $12. Shipped, by single 
bed or quantity, to all parts of the werld. Liberal dis- 
count to the trade. F. C. BEACH & CO., Makers, 131 and 
133 Duane Street. New York. 



GRAND COUD MEDAL AWARDED 



f #5T|S r , NEW. USEFUL, VALUABLEI 

f IftWsa Amft teur Lathes', Tools unii fllauhiueej 4odel Stenm En- f 
I VfUssB G' ue3 > Steamboats, Sailing Vessels : Mathematical . 

i j JMtsjjR meats Microscopes; Jhemical Cabinets, etc. .Iso 

v*KH. ,'■»-" , 0' HfJCbenucai experiments and •Je&tiac on preparing b-| 
jeewfor Microscope Instructions or making ^ret irKcrofl \\ork, ■■iihfc 
home talent, and illustrations ifllOuscful parlor -equi sites, ii.: Biidf 
Cages, Book Shelves, Brackets, Fl&wer Stands, Writing Desks, Workt 
Baskets, etc. Mailed on receipt of 25c. and with first order ; or $1.1.0 1 
worth of Designs will send extra copies to refund price of Book free. 
GEOKGE PAKR, Buffalo, N. Y.. Manf. Mechanics' Tools. 



SIXTH EDITION FIFTIETH THOUSAND 



Working Models 

AndExperimental Machinery, Metal, or "Wood, made to 
order by J.F. WERNER, 62 Center Bt., N. T. 



Damper Reg. Pat. Gage Cocks. Water Feed Reg's. 



Send for Circulars. 



MURRILL & KEIZER, Bait., Md 



SUPER-HEATERS 

Save fuel, and Bupply DRY 6team. Easily attached to 
any boiler. HENKY W. BULKLEY, En elncer. 

98 Liberty St., New York. 



■» «.*«,«•« For Ovens, Boiler flues, 

* yrOlWGTGrS. Blast furnaces, Super. 

Heated Steam, Oil Stills, &c. Address 

HENRY W. BTJLKLEY, 
98 Liberty St., New York. 




The " three-ply " Roofing Is a perfect success ; 20,000,000 
feet In use. Circulars and samples sent "free." MICA 
ROOFING CO. 73 Maiden Lane, New York. 



tagSFj^St Union Stone Co., 

.^^sa^msi^a^. Patentees and Manufacturers of 
Emery Wheels & EmeryBlocks 
In size and Form to Suit various 
Mechanical Uses; 
GRINDERS, SAW GUMMERS, DIA- 
MOND TOOLS, and WOOD'S PA 

TENT KNIFE GRINDER, 

For Planing, Paper Cutting, Leather Splitting, andal 
other Long Knives. 

Office, 16 Exchange Stkeet, Boston, Mass. 
BRt „™ Ofwtp™ I w - s - Jarboe, 93 Liberty Street. N. T. 
branch "Trc=s s5 o2ConimerceStreet,Pniladelphia,Pa. 
t^Send for circular. 




SCHLENKER'S PATENT 

Bolt Cutter 

New Invention. Address, 
Howard. Iron Works, Buffalo. n.Y. 



MORRIS, TASKER & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

AMERICAN CHARCOAL IRON 

Boiler Tubes. 

WR0UGHT-IR0N TUBES 

AND FITTINGS, FOR GAS, STEAM, 

WATER, AND OIL. 

fc^" Steam and Gas Fitters' Supplies, Machinery for 
oal Gas Works, Ac, &c. 

NO. 15 GOLD ST., NEW YORK. 



American Saw Co. 

No. 1 Ferry Street, corner 
Gold Street, New York. 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

Patent Movable Toothed 

CIBCULAR SAWS, 

Patent Perforated 

Circular, Mill, 

AND 

Cross-cjrtSaws. 

S^Send for Descriptive Pam- 
phlet. 




54P 



the band sa w< 

Its ORIGIN and 

TTISTORY, with Engravings of the Oldest 

'b. AddreBsRICHARDS.Lr" 
bove Arch), Philadelphia. 



MMAOHlNB.BentgratlB. AddreBsRICHARDS.LON- 
&KELLEY,22dst. (abo 



_PATENT 
OLD ROLLED 
SHAFTING. 



The fact that this shafting has 75 per cent greater 
B trengtli , a liner finish, and is t rue r to gage, than any ot her 
in use, renders It undoubtedly the most economical. We 
are also the Bole manufacturers of the Celebrated Col- 
lins Pat. Coupling, and furnish Pulleys, Hangers, etc., 
of the most approved st yleB. Price lists mailed on appli- 
cation to JONES & LAUGHLINS, 
Try street, 2d and 3d avenues, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
190 S. Canal St., Chicago. 
S3?~Stock8 0f this Shafting In store and for sale by 
FULLER. DANA & FITZ, Boston, Mass. 
GEO. PLACE & CO., 126 Chambers street, N. Y. 
PIERCE & WHALING, Milwaukee, Wis. 



7gN Over 15,000,000 square 
feet in use. 




For steep or flat Roofs, In all climates 

Asbestos Roof Coating. 

For restoring old Tin, Felt, and Shingle Roofs, 

ASBESTOS BOILER FELTING. 

The best non-conductor, and the lightest and most eco- 
nomical covering for Steam Pipes, Boilers, Oil Stills, etc., 
whether housed or exposed to the weather. 

These materials are prepared ready for use, and can 
be easily appliedby any one. 

ROOFING A.ND SHEATHING FELTS, ASBESTOS 
BOARD, ASBESTOS PAPER, ASBESTOS, ASPHAL- 
TUM, &C. 

Send for Descriptive Pamphlets, Price Lists, Terms to 
Dealers, etc. 

H. W. JOHNS, 

( Established \ New Offices. 87 MAIDEN LANE, cor. 

1 in 1858. J GOLD STREET, New York. 



VW T. V. Carpenter, Advertising Agent. Addres* 
Box 773, New York city. 



PETER COOPER'S 




\i 




FOR FIRST CLASS MACHINERY. 

It contains no gum or acid, and Is warranted pure and 
equal to the best Sperm Oil. 
B^"For sale at No. 17 Burling Slip, New Yerk. 

The Tanite Co., 

Inventors and Builders of Special Machinery 
connected with Emery Grinding. 

Solid Emery WheelB, from % inch to 2 feet In diameter 
Emery Grinding Machines at $15, $30, $50, $75, and $110' 
Stove Rests, $5. Diamond Tools, $15. Special Tools and 
MachlneBmade to order. SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUES AND PHOTOGRAPHS! 

By means q/ extensive additions to their factory and 
Machinery, TBE TANITE CO. are now (September, 
1872) enabled to triple their former production, and to 
supply promptly their increasing demand for their cele- 
brated and STANDARD MAKE OF GOODS. All Goods 
sold by THE TANITE CO. are made by them at their own 
Factory, under their own Patents and Processes. 

AddreBB THE TANITE CO., 

i Stroiidsburg, IHouroe Co., Pa.. 



THE TANITE CO.'S 

EMERY WHEELS and EMERY 
GRINDING MACHINES 

Are kept in Stock, and sold at Factory Prices, by 
CHAMPLIN & ROGERS. 155 Fifth Avenue, Chicago 
NILES TOOL WORKS, Cincinnati ; C. E. INLOES & CO. 
Baltimore- J. F. JEWETT & CO., Mobile : HAWKINS & 
DODGE, Newark, N. J., and E- ANDREWS, Williams- 
port, Pa. C. BLACK & CO., Hamilton, Ont., Canada 
also keep these goods. 

THE TANITE CO. have no Agencies In New York or 
New England. 



THE TANITE CO. do not Exhibit or 
Compete at any Fair in the United 
States this Year. 



Diamond Pointed 

STEAM DRILLS 



THE adoption of new and improved applica 
tlons to the celebrated Leschot's patent, have made 
these drills more fully adaptable to every variety of 
ROCK DRILLING. Their unequalled efficiency and 
economy are acknowledged, both in tills country and 
Europe. The Drills are built of various sizes and pat- 
terns ; WITH AND WITHOUT BOILERS, and bore at a 
unif orm rate, of THREE TO FIVE INCHES PER MIN 
UTE in hard rock. They are adapted to CHANNELLING 
GADDING, SHAFTING, TUNNELLING, and open cut 
work: also, to DEEP BORING FOR TESTIN& THE 
VALUE OF MINES AND QUARRIES. TEST CORE 
taken out, showing the character of mines at any depth. 
Used either with steam or compressed air. Simple and 
durable 1h construction. Never need sharpening. Man 
ufactured by 
THE AMERICAN DIAMOND SKILL CO., 
No. 61 Iiiberty St., New York 





Wright's Double-ActlnelBucket- 
Plunger. 

STEAM PIPS. 

Made by the Valley Machine Co. 
EASTHAMPTON, Mass. 



Just Published— Treatise on 

WOOD WORKING MACHINERY, 

With overone hundred plates and engravings of English,, 
French, andT American Machines. 
Send for circular to L. H. BERRY, No. ll7North 22d St.,- 
Philadelphia, Sole Agent for the United States. 



KEEP TOUR BOILERS CLEAN. 



ANTI LAMINA 



ftrevents and removes scarle In Steam Boilers— noes noi 
njure the Iron. In use over five years. 

J. J. ALLEN, Patentee, Philadelphia, Pa, 



Machtmst's Tools, 

EXTEA HEAVY AND IMPROVED. 

LUCIUS W. POND, MANUFACTURER 

Worcester, Mass. 
WarerooDiB, 98 Liberty Street, New York. 

A. C. STEBBINS, Agent. 



IRON STEAMSHIP BUILDERS. 

Neafie & Levy, 

PENN WORKS. 

MARINE ENGINES, BOILERS, AND BUILD- 
ERS OF COMPOUND ENGINES, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



RANSOM SYPHON CONDENSER perfects 
and maintains vacuum on Steam Engines at cost of 
one per cent Its value, and by Its use Vacuum Pans are 
rnn with full vacuum without Air Pump. Send to WM. 
ALLEN, 51 Chardon St., Boston, for a personal call, or 
he Company, at Buffalo, N. Y., for a circular. 



f^\ EORGE PAGE & CO., Manufacturers of 
\JT Portable and Stationary 

STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS; 

Patent Circular, Gang, Mulay, and SaBh 

SAWMILLS, with OUTFITS COMPLETE, 



combining all reliable^improvements— Grist Mills ; Shin 
rking * 
ptl 
Schroeder Street, Baltimore, Md. 



gle Machines ; Wood Working and General Machinery. 
Send for Descriptive Catalogues. Address No. 5 W 



E. t. swezey, 

WHOLESALE DEALER IN METALSr 
6 New Bowery & 398 Pearl St., N.Y. 

Copper, Brass, Lead, Spelter, Tin, Composition, 
Antimony, Anti-Friction Metal, etc. etc. 



WIRE ROPE. 

JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS. 

MANTTFACTURERS, TRENTON, N. J. 

EOR Inclined Planes, Standing Ship Rigging,. 
Bridges, Ferries, Stays, or Guys on Derricks & Cranes* 
3r Ropes, Sash Cords of Copper and Iron, Lightning 
Conductors of Copper. Special attention given to hoist- 
ing rope of all kinds for Mines an d|E levators- Apply for 
circular, giving price and other information. Send for 
pamphlet on Transmission of Power by Wire Ropes. A 
arge stock constantly on hand at New York Warehouse, 
No. 117 Liberty street. 



f"PHE " Scientific American " is printed with 

X CHAS. ENETJ JOHNSON & CO.'S INK. Tenth and 
1 Lombard sts., Philadelphia and 59 Gold st., New York 



© 1873 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.